Strategy in the context of transparent leadership

and sustainable project management



Article 2 of 5

By Helgi Thor Ingason, PhD and Haukur Ingi Jonasson, PhD

Reykjavik University

Reykjavik, Iceland



We have written a series of four books for the modern business professional who needs to be able to lead and participate in different kinds of projects and understand and practice different contextual, leadership, technical and communication aspects of project, programme and portfolio management. For the readers of PM World Journal, we are introducing our series through a set of short articles, where we explain our ideas and scope.

This second article gives a brief overview of the first book in our series; namely Project: Strategy. This is a straightforward guide to strategic planning within organisations, presenting the reader with a fundamental understanding of strategic management and functioning as a practical handbook.

Strategic planning has the potential to enable every organisation to realise its ideals and actualise its values, whether it be a small start-up business, a large international company, or even an entire society. Yet strategic planning efforts often fail due to an inability to execute the plan or because of poor decisions resulting in mismanagement of resources, for instance betting on the wrong projects. This book explores the perspective of project, portfolio and programme management and it shows how strategy is, in fact, the starting point for many projects. It is therefore imperative for project orientated organisations to understand their position and environment, and to make rational decisions when selecting and defining their projects and programs. Strategic planning is a key tool in such considerations and the book gives real life examples on strategy within different organisations.

We have written the book to be a practical handbook on strategic planning in organisations of any size, from small start-ups to large corporations and will be of interest to professionals in management and specialist positions within knowledge-based organisations in all sectors. Within such organisations, managers, specialists and in fact all employees are active participants in continuous strategic planning and are expected to contribute to it. Everyone must thus be familiar with the basic aspects of strategic planning and able to apply these skills, either as a leader or participant, and the book facilitates this. The book is also well-suited as a basic textbook in strategic planning at undergraduate and graduate level, and its exploration of open strategic planning on a social level would be of interest to readers in the public sector.


To read entire article, click here


Editor’s note: This series of articles is by Professors Helgi Thor Ingason and Haukur Ingi Jonasson at Reykjavik University in Iceland.  Active researchers and educators in the field of project management for many years, they are the authors of a series of books on project management and related fields, published by Taylor Francis / Routledge in 2019.  See their author profiles at the end of this article.

How to cite this article: Ingason, H.T. and Jonasson, H.I. (2019). Strategy in the context of transparent leadership and sustainable project management. PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Ingason-transparent-leadership-sustainable-pm-2-strategy.pdf



About the Authors

Helgi Thor Ingason, PhD

Professor, Reykjavik University
Reykjavik, Iceland



Helgi Thor Ingason (b. 1965) holds a PhD in process metallurgy from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), MSc in mechanical and industrial engineering from the University of Iceland and a Stanford Advanced Project Management Certification from Stanford University. He is an IPMA Certified Senior Project Manager (B level).

Dr. Ingason is a professor at Reykjavik University. He is co-head (with Dr. Haukur Ingi Jonasson) of the MPM – Master of Project Management – program at the university. The research fields of Dr. Ingason range from quality- and project management to system dynamics and renewable energy, production, transport and utilization, changes in the energy infrastructure and energy carriers of the future.

Dr. Ingason has reported on his research at conferences and in several reviewed conference and journal papers. He is the co-author of 7 books in the Icelandic language on project management, strategic planning, product development and quality management. He is also co-author, with Haukur Ingi Jonasson, of the books Project Ethics (2013), Project: Leadership (2018), Project: Strategy (2018), Project: Communication (2019) and Project: Execution (2019). To learn more about these books, visit the Routledge publishing site here.

Dr. Ingason was interim CEO of Orkuveita Reykjavikur (Reykjavik Energy) from 2010 to 2011. A co-founder of Nordica Consulting Group, Dr. Ingason is a management consultant and a recognized speaker. In his spare time he plays piano and accordion with the South River Band (www.southriverband.com), and Kólga (www.kolga.band), two Icelandic world music ensembles.

More information on Dr. Ingason can be found on www.academia.edu and on www.helgithoringason.com. Information about the MPM program at the University of Reykjavik can be found at http://en.ru.is/mpm/why-mpm/.  Dr. Ingason can be contacted at helgithor@ru.is.


Haukur Ingi Jonasson

Professor, Reykjavik University
Reykjavik, Iceland



Haukur Ingi Jonasson (Cand. Theol., University of Iceland; STM, PhD, Union Theological seminary; clinical training in pastoral counseling, Lennox Hill Hospital; psychoanalytical training, Harlem Family Institute New York City) is an assistant professor and chairman of the Board for the MPM – Master of Project Management – program at Reykjavik University in Iceland.

He is also a psychoanalyst in private practice and a management consultant at Nordic Consulting Group ehf. As a consultant, his clients have included energy companies, banks, hospitals, the government and other public and private organizations.  Dr. Jonasson is also a mountain climber and a member of the Reykjavik Mountaineering Air Ground Search and Rescue Squad.   Dr. Jonasson can be contacted at haukuringi@ru.is

He is co-author, with Helgi Thor Ingason, of the books Project Ethics (2013), Project: Leadership (2018), Project: Strategy (2018), Project: Communication (2019) and Project: Execution (2019). To learn more about these books, visit the Routledge publishing site here.

Dr. Jonasson can be contacted at haukuringi@ru.is




7. Comments on major contexts

and further discussions


Series on Project Contexts

By Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon)

Sydney, Australia




This is the last of a series of seven articles which have identified and discussed a variety of key contexts impacting on the management of projects. The basic reason for developing this series is that there is far too little attention given to the contexts of projects in the relevant literature – particularly when you consider that, in practice, effective management of projects’ contexts is usually quite critical to achieving overall project management (PM) success.

The first article of this series (Stretton 2019e) identified six key types of project contexts. These were summarised pictorially into a combined model, depicted in skeleton format in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Outline project context model

The second article of this series was concerned with the context of organisational strategic management; the third with the contexts of projects being undertaken by supplier organisations (SOs), and by owner organisations (OOs); the fourth with the contexts of what Shenhar & Dvir 2007 have described as projects dimensions; the fifth with types of projects; and the sixth with external influencers, and with application areas in which projects are undertaken.

In this last article we will first re-present the full version of Figure 1, which illustrates the six contexts and their sub-contexts, and discuss their multitudinous nature, and potential utility. We will then return to look at each of the six contexts, with comments on key issues, and on related issues not previously discussed, including some further contexts. We conclude the whole series with a brief note on the importance of this somewhat neglected subject of the contexts in which projects are undertaken.

We start with re-presenting the full version of Figure 1, which was first presented as Figure 5 in the immediately preceding article (Stretton 2019j).

Figure 2: A cumulative representation of the six contexts and their sub-contexts

We will now discuss some aspects of these project contexts and sub-contexts


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this paper: Stretton, A. (2019). 7. Comments on major contexts, and further discussions, Series on Project Contexts; PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Stretton-7-conclusion-of-contexts-series.pdf



About the Author

Alan Stretton, PhD      

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)



Alan Stretton is one of the pioneers of modern project management.  He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA.  In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects.  He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France).  Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992.  He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996.  He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management.  He has published over 200 professional articles and papers.  Alan can be contacted at alanailene@bigpond.com.au.

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.



Why Should We Include Opportunity?

Five C’s


Risk Doctor Briefing


Dr David Hillson, PMI Fellow, HonFAPM, FIRM

The Risk Doctor Partnership

United Kingdom



Many of the pieces are now in place to support widespread adoption of inclusive risk management that addresses both threats and opportunities. International standards define risk as double-sided, and this is supported by professional bodies, recognised thought-leaders, expert practitioners, and leading-edge organisations. All that’s needed is for more people to start doing it! But why should we?

Here are five reasons (and number 5 is the best):

  1.  Compliance. International risk standards use a double-sided definition of risk, and organisations wishing to align with these standards will have to follow suit.

2. Contracts. Some clients require their suppliers to use formal risk management, and if you want to do business with them you must have risk processes in place. If your client includes opportunity management within the contractual requirement, you’ll have to do the same.

3. Conformance. Many leading organisations use an integrated risk process to identify and capture opportunities proactively as well as to deal with threats, including those who are role models or “best of breed”. This may influence other organisations to adopt a similar approach, in order to keep up with the leading players in their industry.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this paper: Hillson, D. (2019).  Why Should We Include Opportunity? Five C’s, Risk Doctor Briefing; PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue XI, December.   Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Hillson-Why-Include-Opportunity-the-Five-Cs.pdf



About the Author

Dr David Hillson HonFAPM PMI-Fellow CFIRM CMgr FCMI

The Risk Doctor

United Kingdom




Known globally as The Risk Doctor, David Hillson leads The Risk Doctor Partnership (www.risk-doctor.com), a global consultancy offering specialist risk services across the world.

David has a reputation as an excellent speaker and presenter on risk. His talks blend thought-leadership with practical application, presented in an accessible style that combines clarity with humour, guided by the Risk Doctor motto: “Understand profoundly so you can explain simply”.

He also writes widely on risk, with eleven major books, and over 100 professional papers. He publishes a regular Risk Doctor Briefing blog in seven languages to 10,000 followers, and has over 7,500 subscribers to the RiskDoctorVideo YouTube channel (www.youtube.com/RiskDoctorVideo).

David has advised leaders and organisations in over fifty countries around the world on how to create value from risk based on a mature approach to risk management, and his wisdom and insights are in high demand. He has also received many awards for his ground-breaking work in risk management over several decades.

To see other works previously published in the PM World Journal by Dr David Hillson, visit his author showcase at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-david-hillson/



Real Estate Projects Design and Pattern

in Akulemu and Ajegunle Areas of Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria: An assessment of Key Contributing Factors



By Christian Osita Ifediora

Oyo State, Nigeria




This work focused on the factors that conspired to determine the choice of design, pattern and types of real estate projects in the Akuleme and Ajegunle areas of Oyo State in Nigeria. Most real estate projects seem to be peculiar and follow almost a similar pattern which is mostly wing time and new real estate projects in the study area are mostly not different from what has been over the years. This study through observations and interview identified the types of real estate projects prevalent in the area, the factors which also conspired to determine the choice, pattern and types of such real estate projects. It determined the extent to which the identified factors contributed to the choice/patterns of most real estate projects within such study areas. Through Friedman non-parametric statistical (test) analysis done using SPSS version 21, it was also discovered that the identified factors have impact on the choice of design and real estate development in the study area. The work recommended that stakeholders should consider either conversion of already exiting real estate projects to self-contained to reflect the current design and demand, adding that new developments should feature more new real estate projects that are self-contained types.

Key points: Real estate, Projects, Design, Pattern, and Factors.


The real estate industry is one of the most active and influential sectors of the overall performance of the Nigerian economy. Globally investments in real estate projects are expanding rapidly, leading to expansion in job opportunities; this is particularly true as evidences abound even in emerging and developing economies. According to Ling and Archer, (2010), Real estate is one of the largest components of wealth in many economies, has continued to plays a crucial role in advancing the economic condition of individuals, families and firms; it has no doubt substantially influenced a family’s ability to finance its education, health care and other critical needs. It has been described as the highest employer of labour when compared with other sectors of the economy, (Olajide, 2018). Real estate provides or serves as shelter for the teeming populace, while it provides shelter for the populace, it has been observed that various patterns feature in different communities, these real estate are peculiar in terms of their design and varies in shapes and sizes in relation to the nature of household, hence the need to look at the types or pattern in some localities especially in environment these peculiarity is more pronounced.

The presence of Federal School of Survey (FSS) and Ajayi Crowther University Oyo (ACU) both located within the study area has led to increase in demand for self-contained accommodations, both staff and students including occasionally corps members, finds it difficult to get the type of real estate projects that will give them the desired privacy.  In Akulemu and Ajegunle areas of  Oyo, the type/pattern of real estate project estate appears to be somewhat peculiar, while most of the real estate projects both developed and ones under development appears to be more of tenement buildings, bungalows and some that seems to be like flat are more of wings types. It is a common thing to see real estate projects in nature of “face me I face you apartment”. Again the issue of ventilation is also a call for concern as most of the rooms have one windows and always very small hence making it difficult for cross ventilations. This study considers it necessary to analyse the factors that could condition the choice of such of pattern of real estate projects or accommodation in some selected place in Oyo.  Many factors are believed to have conspired to determine the choice of design, pattern and types of such real estate projects in Akulemu and Ajegunle area of Oyo.


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Ifediora, C.O. (2019). Real Estate Projects Design and Pattern in Akulemu and Ajegunle Areas of Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria: An assessment of Key Contributing Factors; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Ifediora-real-estate-projects-design-patterns-in-oyo-state.pdf



About the Author

Christian Osita Ifediora
Ajayi Crowther University Oyo
Oyo State, Nigeria




Christian Osita Ifediora, MSc, ANIVS, RSV is a lecturer in the Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. An Associate member of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, a Registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers. Holds BSc. Estate Management and MSc. (Project management option), Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Currently a PhD student of the same institution.  A reviewer in a journal (science domain).  Currently a member of European centre for Research Training and Development United Kingdom. He is a member of Library and Publication Committee and member of Students Industrial Work Experience (SIWES) board, Ajayi Crowther University.  He can be contacted at ositaifediora@gmail.com or co.ifediora@acu.edu.ng



A critical analysis of the importance of project stakeholder management

in the implementation of the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority electronic services platform



By Tasiyana Siavhundu

Gweru, Zimbabwe




One of the common situations that derail global projects in general and African projects in particular is poor stakeholder management. In most projects, it is really possible and easy to forget the importance and role played by stakeholders in project success as project managers deviate from the project scope and end up using resources inefficiently. The study analyzed the importance of project stakeholder management in the implementation of the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority’s electronic services platform. A qualitative research methodology was employed where questionnaires formed the major data gathering tool. Questionnaires were administered through face-to face interviews, telephone interviews, electronic mails as well as through the post. The study rejected the null hypothesis that project stakeholder management did not matter in the implementation of Zimbabwe revenue Authority’s electronic services platform. Thus, the study proved that project stakeholder management is indispensable and was really necessary in the implementation of the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority electronic services project.

Key words: e-services, project managements, stakeholder management, questionnaire, ZIMRA


One of the common situations that derail global projects in general and African projects in particular is poor stakeholder management. In most projects, it is really possible and easy to forget the importance and role played by stakeholders in project success as project managers deviate from the project scope and end up using resources inefficiently. The probable result in this case is a white elephant. Successful and fruitful project management however requires putting stakeholders at the centre so that stakeholder buy-in becomes obvious as stakeholders feel that they co-own the project.

The PMBOK Guide, 6th Edition defines a project stakeholder as an individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project. Project stakeholder management is therefore about identifying and satisfying those who are affected by the project, whether they are internal or external. Almost everyone or every organization is a stakeholder to any project but not all stakeholders matter. Therefore, close attention needs to be paid to those stakeholders who can have a profound positive or negative impact on the project.

Stakeholder management is a critical function of any project manager’s job. Without strong stakeholder support, project success may be jeopardized since success is defined by the stakeholders. With strong stakeholder support a project gains a valuable ally who can significantly trigger success. When managed properly, a team of engaged stakeholders can really be one of the project’s greatest assets. Stakeholders can be a great source for requirements, can serve as mentors and can help raise the adoption rate of projects’ output by the end users. Stakeholders can also support the project team in times of need or crisis. In essence, making sure that all of project stakeholders buy into the vision of the project and understand its benefits will lead to strong stakeholder support.

1.1 Background of the Study

ZIMRA, which derives its mandate from Zimbabwe’s Revenue Authority Act [Chapter 23:11] and other subsidiary legislation, is responsible for assessing, collecting and accounting for revenue on behalf of the State through the Ministry of Finance. Its four-fold and specific mandate is to collect revenue, facilitate trade and travel, advise the government of Zimbabwe on fiscal and economic matters as well as protecting the civil society.

ZIMRA was established on 19 January 2001 as a successor organization to the then Department of Taxes and the Department of Customs and Excise following the promulgation of the Revenue Authority Act on February 11, 2000.Since then, ZIMRA has grown at a tremendous pace and has put in place client-centric strategies for the convenience of the transacting public. From inception, ZIMRA embraced a culture of modernisation as evidenced by having modernisation as one of its strategic goals. A number of projects have already been implemented and many are in the process of being implemented. The need to ensure synchronisation of projects and coordination of the implementation process resulted in the establishment of the Modernisation Projects Office (MPO) on 1 September 2011. ZIMRA’s modernization policy is also aligned to the national strategic blueprint, the ZIMASSET, which incorporates technological advancement as one fundamental components of growth and development.

As one of its modernization initiatives, ZIMRA, in conjunction with Microsoft and Systems Application Programme (SAP), developed the e-services platform, which was launched on the 28th of June 2015…


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Siavhundu, T. (2019). A critical analysis of the importance of project stakeholder management in the implementation of the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority electronic services platform; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Siavhundu-importance-of-stakeholder-management-in-ZIMRA.pdf



About the Author

Tasiyana Siavhundu

Gweru, Zimbabwe




Tasiyana Siavhundu is a member of the Project Management Zimbabwe (PMZ) with vast qualifications and experience in Project Management, Economics, Taxation as well as Investments and Portfolio Management. He is a holder of a B.Sc. Honours Degree in Economics, Master of Commerce Degree in Economics, Post-Graduate Diploma in Project Management, Executive Certificate in Investments and Portfolio Management, Advanced Certificate in Taxation and many other qualifications.

Tasiyana has worked both in the private and public sectors in Zimbabwe. He is now employed as a Revenue Officer with the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) where he has been instrumental in economic research, revenue enhancement projects, taxpayer education, audits and so forth. He is very passionate about research work and has interests in the fields of Economics (particularly Public Economics), Project Management and Taxation.

Tasiyana Siavhundu can be directly contacted by email at tsiavhundu@gmail.com

To view other works by this author, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/tasiyana-siavhundu/



Advantages of making a dashboard

with a Business Intelligence platform compared to other reporting software



By Piero G. Anticona

Lima, Peru




A Business Intelligence (BI) dashboard is a tool that transforms information and displays Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and metrics to assess the organization’s performance. Besides, it is a powerful application to elaborate on the dashboard with big data. It is also more useful for the main reports to project managers, project directors, and executive managers.

Can Business Intelligence’s applications provide efficiency of use of resources, the stability of administration of the information, scalability to share spreadsheets or data, and avoid indifference from managers of watching the reports generated?

What other advantages of making a dashboard with Business Intelligence platforms compare to other reporting software?

This research is important:

  • To determine the advantages of Business Intelligence over other report software
  • To define the main attributes to choose a Business Intelligence dashboard tool.
  • To decide what challenges executive managers have to overcome to use a Business Intelligence dashboard.

This paper concluded the following:

  • BI platform does not offer any advantage compared to other reporting software. The author has not perceived any benefit elaborating on the charts because it was not intuitive to set figures and parameters. Dundas BI online version is the platform that replicates most of the metrics.
  • A BI dashboard tool should include attributes, the modification of arrangements, or formats of data source. Online versions do not include this feature. Also, online versions do not include all the charts listed in the manuals and other characteristics as assigning more values to a secondary axis. And the most important is that BI platforms should be more intuitive in setting the parameters of different axis.
  • The challenges that executive managers have to overcome to get the full value of BI applications are that not all the information is replicable in BI dashboard tools. Also, as they are not intuitive, a skilled manager with an advanced level of MS Excel might discourage him/her from using BI tools. Another factor that might stop using BI tools is that Data Source uses different formats from different supporting areas. It should be standard. And finally, a good challenge should be to train project team members in using significant amount of data with several dimensions to use charts that are more interactive with users in selecting and in filtering to report specific indicators.

Key Words:     Cost Reporting, Executive Managers, Business Intelligence, Dashboard, Database, Big Data, Data Analytics, Reports, Metrics, KPI.


Some companies do not know how to integrate multiple business applications that use different data sources. Another problem that companies face is the lack of visibility of operations and activities from functional areas.  When managers or directors get the information, it is not quick, and data is not relevant.

Companies that merge, acquire, or grow fast also have to manage a significant amount of information.

Besides, there is an increase in the volume of information, and end-users require analytical capabilities.

Companies implement Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to improve processes and reorganize operational data, but still, it gets duplicated or copied on to multiple platforms. These systems do not guarantee reliability and security. Several reports from Finance, Sales, or Operations rarely deliver the same figures. Even if the ERP produces the same information, reports do not reconcile because of the extract process or the format.

Over the last decade, other companies have developed applications for performance management to repair defaults of the accounting modules from ERP vendors. The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants Forum considers that these applications are better for consolidation, elaboration of budgets and forecast, than those performed for ERP systems.

Business Intelligence (BI) is a concept that uses different tools, definitions, and technologies to process data and elaborate useful information that stakeholders use to make decisions.

The goal is to address concerns about business and analysis if strategies provide them a competitive advantage in the sector or market.


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Anticona, P. (2019). Advantages of making a dashboard with a Business Intelligence platform compared to other reporting software. PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Anticona-making-dasboard-with-business-intelligence.pdf



About the Author

Piero G. Anticona

Lima, Peru




Piero Anticona is a project controller with 15 years of professional experience in the sectors of Mining, Energy and Oil and Gas. He worked as Owner, EPCM and Contractor in different projects in Peru, Spain and France. Piero is a Certified Cost Professional from AACE International and Project Management Professional from Project Management Institute. Piero graduated from SKEMA (France) with a Master in Program and Project Management. In addition, he has a major study in Mechanical Electrical Engineering from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (Peru). He is currently president of AACE International Peru Section (2018-2019) and he is attending a distance learning mentoring course, under tutorage of Dr Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS, GPM-m Senior Technical Advisor, PT Mitrata Citragraha, to attain Guild of Project Controls certification.

Piero lives in Lima, Peru and can be contacted at piero.anticona@gmail.com

To view other works by this author, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/piero-g-anticona/




Reward Management for Improved Performance

of Nigerian Brewing Companies



By Dr. Uzoma Francis Amaeshi

Department of Management Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Imo State, Nigeria




This study investigates the effect of reward management on the performance of four selected brewing companies in South East Nigeria. We adopted a descriptive survey design; generating our primary data with item structured research instrument on Likert scale from a total of 428 respondents that formed the study population and analyzed the collated data using Pearson correlation coefficient and simple regression analysis statistical tools. The findings of the study revealed that recognition/praise rewards, pay/bonus rewards, work environment, training and development have significant positive relationship with employees’ performance in brewing companies in South Eastern Nigeria. Therefore, reward management has a positive effect on the performance of employees in the brewing companies in Nigeria. We recommend that management should adopt feedback mechanisms that will give them signal on the performance level of the various reward systems in use in their organizations.

Key words:  Motivation, Reward Management, Employee Performance


1.0 Background of the study

Most people look for a job that rewards them for what they can offer the organization, meaning we all want to be adequately compensated for our skills, abilities, knowledge and loyalty that we bring to a job. Being rewarded in this way seems fair, but unfortunately, this is not always achieved. When unfair treatment rears its ugly head in the workplace, so do a lack of motivation, lower performance and decreased job satisfaction appear.

Scholars have seen reward to be a vital instrument in employee performance (Nnaji-Ihedinmah and Egbunike, 2015; Ajila and Abiola, 2004; Sajuyigbe, Olaoye and Adeyemi, 2013; and Aslam, Ghaffar, Talha and Mushtaq, 2015). These studies have shown that the indicators for measuring employee performance are customer satisfaction, timeliness, absenteeism/tardiness and achievement of objectives.

According to Armstrong, 2006; Torrington, Hall and Stephen, 2008; Hakala, 2008; Njanja, Maina, Kibet, and Njagi (2013) when an employee has surpassed his/her set targets, the employee is considered to have performed well.

These studies have shown that in Nigeria, managers failed to recognize these factors. They have equally failed to provide enabling environment which have critical effects on individual and organizational performance

Notwithstanding the possible essential nexus between rewards management and employee performance in either private/public company, it is still annoying to note that management of various organizations, particularly those of brewing company in Nigeria, hardly consider it as a critical aspect of managing employees performance (Mbah, Mgbemena, and Ejike, 2015). Olajide, (2000) opined that employee performance that is a crucial input for sustaining organizational effectiveness has been missing thus, making it very hard for companies to attain high productivity levels.

Akerele, (1991) blamed the poor productivity of Nigerian workers on employers failure to provide adequate compensation for hard work. Markova and Ford (2011) opine that “the real success of companies originate from employees’ willingness to use their creativity, abilities and know-how in favour of the company and it is organization’s task to encourage and nourish these positive employee inputs by having effective reward practices in the workplace”.

1.1. Purpose of the study

This study tries to explain the connection between rewards and employee performance in brewing companies in Nigeria. Our main purpose is to bring together stakeholders, policy makers, researchers and others who may find it useful. Policy makers need to understand the types of reward management that best motivates employees to peak performance. This understanding will enable management of organizations put up corporate strategies that will accommodate employee rewards; employees will equally be properly guided as to their expectations from their employers in order to reduce conflicts.


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Amaeshi, U.F. (2019). Reward Management for Improved Performance of Nigerian Brewing Companies; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Amaeshi-reward-management-for-improved-performance.pdf



About the Author

Dr. Uzoma Francis Amaeshi
Federal University of Technology
Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria




Dr. Uzoma Francis Amaeshi is a senior lecturer in the department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. His doctoral work is in Management with areas of research interest that include: Human Resources Management; Organizational Development and Entrepreneurship development.

Dr. Amaeshi can be contacted at uzor1958@gmail.com.



Interview with Peter Taylor


Work Smarter and Not Harder


Interview with Peter Taylor

Author, Speaker and Trainer
Author of The Lazy Project Manager and other books

Interviewed by Yu Yanjuan
Journalist, Project Management Review: PMR (China)
International Correspondent for PMWJ


Introduction to the interviewee

Peter Taylor, Speaker, Author and Trainer, is most famous as the author of the book The Lazy Project Manager, an Amazon bestseller in the field of project management. His other books include The Thirty-Six Stratagems, Leading Successful PMOs, The Presentation on Presentations, The Project Manager Who Smiled, etc.

As a speaker, he is described as “perhaps the most entertaining and inspiring speaker in the project management world today”. He has made presentations to tens of thousands in nearly 30 countries.

He is also an experienced senior Program / PMO and transformation specialist with the ability to define overarching priorities and ensure project and program activity satisfies high level business objectives. His key strengths include: embedding robust governance to ensure successful delivery of £multi-million change programs and working with stakeholders throughout the project lifecycle to ensure delivery of tangible business benefits; introducing best practice processes aligned with an organisation’s culture and maturity. Working across multiple industries including Manufacturing, Health, Pharmaceuticals, FMCG, Aerospace and Finance.

Peter Taylor is based in the United Kingdom, but has readers, followers and fans worldwide.  Learn more about Peter at http://thelazyprojectmanager.com/peter-taylor




Part : “We can all learn from Chinese PM wisdom”

Q1.      It seems that you have a sound understanding of Chinese PM wisdom since you have published books titled “The Thirty-Six Stratagems”. What do you think we can learn from Chinese PM wisdom? How can Chinese PM wisdom help project management practice?

Peter Taylor (Taylor):    I really wouldn’t say that I have a sound understanding of Chinese wisdom but I was set a challenge by one of my publishers to write a modern day version of “The Thirty-Six Stratagems” and I loved the opportunity to read the original book, consider the messages and seek modern examples of the stratagems.

I definitely believe that we can all learn from Chinese PM wisdom, and Chinese wisdom in general. There is a calmness to such wisdom: deep consideration of contemplation and thought before action and this is what many project managers around the world keep forgetting. They are so busy with being busy that they don’t act in a good way by keeping in mind the long-term goals and objectives of the projects and rising above the day-to-day activities to assess the project’s health and progress. I’m not suggesting that you delay action but only that such action is considered, and options evaluated before moving on.

Q2.      Have you been to China? What’s your impression on project management practice in China?

Taylor:     Sadly no, I have never been to China, but I would love to have that opportunity. To see the country, meet the people, and speak at Chinese PM events and even deliver some training there would be amazing and a great experience for life.

I can’t really say too much about my impression of project management practice in China beyond reflecting that some of the most amazing engineering achievements have happened in China in the last 20 years and therefore project management must be well advanced in China…


To read entire interview, click here


Editor’s note: This interview was first published in PMR, Project Management Review magazine, China.  It is republished here with the permission of PMR. The PM World Journal maintains a cooperative relationship with PMR, periodically republishing works from each other’s publications. To see the original interview with Chinese introduction, visit PMR at http://www.pmreview.com.cn/english/

How to cite this interview: Yanjuan, Y. (2019). Work Smarter and Not Harder: Interview with Peter Taylor; Project Management Review; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Yanjuan-Interview-with-Peter-Taylor.pdf



About the Interviewer

Yu Yanjuan

Beijing, China




Yu Yanjuan (English name: Spring), Bachelor’s Degree, graduated from the English Department of Beijing International Studies University (BISU) in China. She is now an English-language journalist and editor working for Project Management Review Magazine and website. She has interviewed over forty top experts in the field of project management. In the past, she has worked as a journalist and editor for other media platforms in China. She has also worked part-time as an English teacher in various training centers in Beijing. For work contact, she can be reached via email yuyanjuan2005@163.com  or LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/yanjuanyu-76b280151/.

To view other works by Ms. Yanjuan, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/yu-yanjuan/




Interview with Terri Knudson


Interview with Teresa (Terri) Knudson

2019 Board of Directors
Project Management Institute

Interviewed by Ipek Sahra Ozguler
International Correspondent
Istanbul, Turkey


Journalist’s Introduction

Teresa (Terri) Knudson, MBA, PMP, PgMP, PfMP, is senior director of Strategy Management Services (SMS) for a major for-profit area at the Mayo Clinic, the largest integrated nonprofit medical center in the world.  In this role she is responsible for the full spectrum of strategy services including planning, execution, and benefit measurement and delivery for the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (DLMP).  Prior to this role she was director for the Enterprise Portfolio Management Office (EPMO) for Mayo which she established in 2008.  The EPMO provides methodologies and standards, education, resources, consulting, systems and reporting to advance project, program and portfolio management (PPM).  Terri has served Mayo Clinic for more than 30 years in various business areas, including strategic planning, finance, information technology, audit, business management, and operations administration. During these assignments, she led some of the largest initiatives at Mayo Clinic, many earning Excellence in Teamwork Awards. Prior to joining Mayo Clinic, Ms. Knudson held positions at Deloitte and Cenex.

Ms. Knudson holds an MBA and Bachelor’s Degrees in accounting and computer science. She has obtained her Project Management Professional (PMP)©, Program Management Professional (PgMP)©, Portfolio Management Professional (PfMP)©, and is a certified board director. She is also a certified public accountant, is certified in change management, and has bronze and silver quality awards.



Ipek Sahra Ozguler (Ozguler):   Teresa Knudson, thank you for accepting the interview invitation of the PMWJ. Please introduce yourself to the PMWJ readers.

Terri Knudson (Knudson):  Thank you for this opportunity to participate in this PMWJ interview!

After securing degrees in both finance and information technology, I began my career in accounting, becoming a CPA. After a few years, I decided to change focus and pursue my interests in IT.  Interestingly, the combination of these two seemingly disparate skills sets ultimately led me to the Mayo Clinic and a career in which project management has played a defining role.

I have been at Mayo Clinic for almost 35 years. I’ve had a dozen different careers within Mayo Clinic as it has grown and changed over the years. It’s been a fascinating journey, and I enjoy helping serve patients around the world.

Ozguler:    Tell us about your relationship with PMI. How did it start? Where are you today?

Knudson:   My relationship with PMI is an exciting story. Over the course of my career here at Mayo Clinic, I’ve been involved in many different projects. About 14 years ago, I started hearing about the Project Management Institute and I met a PMP who shared some information about PMI.

What sparked my interest was when I was leading a major ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) implementation that was having some struggles. I was working with a consultant and they introduced me to project management. The framework and standards were immediately relevant to the work I was doing and served as a roadmap for navigating the complex strategic initiatives in which I was engaged.

Given the instant value this introduction to project management provided, I was anxious to learn more. As my knowledge expanded through my engagement with PMI, so did my perspective on how well-established project management practices could be applied across our organization to advance strategic objectives. As a direct result of my association with PMI, I recommended Mayo Clinic form our first EPMO, or enterprise portfolio management office.

Mayo Clinic leadership recognized that PMI is the international standard for project management and delivers tools, processes and approaches to complete projects. As a result, people throughout the organization were trained to secure a PMP certificate and it is now a requirement for all senior level project managers.

After establishing the EPMO, I become more involved in the local PMI chapter. Through this growing relationship with the organization, I was invited to join the PMI Global Executive Council. This opportunity further broadened my perspective, as I saw other organizations around the world dealing with the same issues as our teams. It was increasingly apparent how much value PMI provided in support of our professional objectives. I was able to interact with people who were contending with the same challenges that I was and that could provide innovative solutions based on their considerable expertise.

I was encouraged to become part of the PMI Board of Directors and was honored to be elected to the Board by our members. My first term concludes this year, and I was recently reelected for a second term, which will start in 2020.

Ozguler:    How did you become part of the Mayo Clinic, which is the first and largest integrated, non-profit medical practice group in the world?


To read entire interview, click here


How to cite this interview: Ozguler, I.S. (2019); Interview with Terri Knudson; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December.   Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Ozguler-Interview-with-Terri-Knudson.pdf



About the Interviewer

Ipek Sahra Ozguler

Istanbul, Turkey




Ipek Sahra Ozguler graduated from the Istanbul University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering and from Middle East Technical University with an MSc degree in Software Management. As a project manager, she has more than 10 years’ experience in various areas such as portfolio management, program management, project management, software management, business analysis. She became a certified PMP in January, 2012 and a certified SCRUM Master in 2014.

She has managed a variety of projects across manufacturing, defence, FMCG (Cola Cola), insurance (Euler Hermes), audit (Deloitte), telecommunication, ICT and aviation sectors and gained broader insights. In addition, she has worked as international correspondent for the PM World Journal since 2014.

Ipek is based in Isanbul and can be contacted at ipeksahra@gmail.com.  Her portfolio is published at the http://ipeksahra.strikingly.com/.

To view other works by Ms. Ozguler, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/ipek-sahra-ozguler/



How to write a Model Scheduling Specification

Incorporating the GAO’s “Best Practices in Scheduling” Appendices



By Tijo Kurian

India & Libya




To develop a scheduling specification with an appropriate type of specifying was researched in this paper. Considering world-class CSI manual of practices and Texas DoT for specification template and Master Format 2004 from CSI & CSC for coding structure with incorporating “GAO’s Best Practices in Scheduling” in scheduling specification.  By conducting proper analysis with Engineering Economic Analysis Procedure to develop the scheduling specification with seven steps. In the analysis, powerful decision-making tools like SWOT analysis to refine from the four types of specifying to the appropriate two, then through force field analysis, select the most preferred type of specifying to develop the scheduling specification. Performance specification is the selected type of specifying from the alternatives to develop the Model Scheduling Specification. Hence a robust scheduling specification has developed adopting best practices from the standards and GAO’s Best Practices as appendices to this paper.

Keywords: Performance Specification, Contractual, writing style, contractor, Scheduling


Specifications are one of the essential components that make up the contract agreement between the owner and the contractor.[1] “Specifications define the requirements for products, materials, and workmanship upon which the contract is based and the requirements for administration and performance of the project.”[2] “They are written to achieve a work result.” A specification is clear, concise, accurate, and easily understood. In most countries, the specification is part of the contractual documents. Then only the contractor will follow the specifications without hesitant. It’s essential to select the type of specification and adopt the writing style. The techniques used in the preparation of specifications involve the development of sections from the product reference material and editing section from other references. In developing specifications, the preliminary step is to gather information regarding the project-specific requirements and product selection decisions, require systematics and progressive compiling information in the early design phases.

There are several decisions to be taken on the outset of specification preparation. Before writing the original sections for a project, the type and organization of the specification must be decided upon. Information collected should be developed in the three-part section format, which provides consistency in the presentation of information and allows us to a wide variety of projects. A decision must be taken on the appropriate method of specifying. Sometimes more than one method may be necessary for the same specification or in the same section.

Specification Language

Specification language requires correct usage of vocabulary, grammar along with the correct sentence and paragraph construction. In the specification language, four principles of effective communication should follow, Clear, Concise, Correct, and Complete…


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Kurian, T. (2019). How to write a Model Scheduling Specification Incorporating the GAO’s “Best Practices in Scheduling” Appendices. PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Kurian-how-to-write-a-model-scheduling-specification.pdf



About the Author

Tijo Kurian

India & Libya



Tijo Kurian is a project management professional with over 14 years of experience in upstream and downstream oil and gas projects. He is currently working as a Senior Project Engineer at Waha Oil Company in Libya. He previously worked with Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd, Bilfinger Berger Germany, as Project Control Engineer in various oil and gas projects. He holds a Degree in Mechanical Engineering from MG University, Kottayam and Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from DOTE, Tamil Nadu, India. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) from PMI, USA. He is pursuing some other project management/project control credentials from AACE, Guild of Project Controls, and PMI under the tutorage of Dr.  Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS, GPM-m Senior Technical Advisor, PT Mitrata Citragaha. Tijo Kurian can be contacted at tijokurien007@gmail.com .


[1] Specification Writing – Fundamentals of Structure …. https://www.bicsi.org/docs/default-source/conference-presentations/2017-winter/specification-writing.pdf?sfvrsn=9d504f43_2

[2] Specification Writing – Fundamentals of Structure …. https://www.bicsi.org/docs/default-source/conference-presentations/2017-winter/specification-writing.pdf?sfvrsn=9d504f43_2



%d bloggers like this: