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Evolving Maintenance Culture in Nigeria

The Role of Facilities Management

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr Reuben A Okereke

Department of Quantity Surveying
Imo State University

Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 


 

  1. ABSTRACT

The public perception as an “all comers’ affairs” poses a challenge of competence on practitioners, while the multidisciplinary nature of the practice of facilities management (FM) enhances access to requisite professionals in puts. Maintenance on the other hand is important for production of machinery and equipment’s in technological advancement since population is fast growing. The aim of the study is to examine the role of facilities management to the evolving maintenance culture in Nigeria by professionals practicing facilities management. Lagos state was used as a case study and structured questionnaires were administered to 150 professional facilities managers within the state. Also data was gotten from other researchers work and articles. Result of the study shows that 39% of the respondents have between 6-10 years of working experience, which means that younger generation professionals currently dominate the practice of FM. It has been established that FM can be best practiced by adopting information standardization, acquisition of more relevant trainings by practitioners as well as the practice performance benchmarking. Finding validates the literature on the multidisciplinary nature of FM. Also to embrace a better maintenance culture within the country, industry, professional bodies and university academics have to embrace FM practice and begin to create innovations that will move FM practice in Nigeria to maturity stage just like in the developed countries like USA and UK.

Key words: multidisciplinary nature, facilities management, maintenance, culture, industry

2. INTRODUCTION

As the population is fast growing, technological advancement (in quality and quantity) should also be growing in like manner, for this reason production engineers and manufacturers are working round the clock seeking for the technical ideals of maintenance to meet up with ever increasing demand of the populace. Infrastructural development is the basis and bedrock of any development effort in the world today. The maintenance of production machinery and equipment and assurance of availability of spare parts are becoming increasingly important (Ramdeen and Pun, 2005). It is important to stress that, it is not enough for facilities of development to be put in place; it is more than enough for these facilities to be adequately and properly maintained so that the purpose for which they are meant would be accomplished.

Maintenance management is a data-intensive activity which forms an important aspect of human and non-human resources development as it is considered one of the major catalysts of the continuous existence of all forms of resources in the universe (Uma, 2009). With the increasing specialization and complexity of equipment and other facilities used in manufacturing, the need to develop effective maintenance culture in the industries had become imperative (Olatunbosun and Abimbola, 2005). Olatunde (2009) is of the view that understanding the importance of project sustainability will mean incorporating long term facility management agreements in all major projects.

Maintenance is the work necessary to keep the body, equipment and machines in proper and safe operating conditions (Usman, 2008). Maintenance is therefore seen as a vital part and a necessity in human or non-human resources management if they are to be continuously functional. Maintenance can be summarized as the repair and upkeep of existing equipment’s, buildings and facilities to keep them in a safe, effective as designed condition so that they can meet their intended purpose (Eti et al, 2004, Adeniyi et al 2004). Any equipment or facility has a pre-determined expected standard of performance and support for extent to which the maintenance objectives are met as regards the satisfaction of both internal, external and customers requirements (Oluleye and Olajire, 2009). The phrase maintenance culture could therefore be seen as an important one that should be defined to have a proper understanding of what it stands for in the process of sustainable development. In financial perspective, maintenance is classified as an operating expense while the other non-maintenance activities such as process optimization, manufacture of replacement parts, relocation, upgrading, modification and installation of equipment (plant engineering functions) are capitalized. Ajibola (2009) defines culture as “the shared belief and values of a group; the beliefs, customs, practices and social behavior of a particular nation or people”. A good maintenance culture ensures that machinery functions properly even when depreciation is assured. Cost saving can be enormous if basic maintenance procedures are put in place (Ikpo, 2000). Appropriate maintenance culture, proper repair and preventive maintenance of industrial machinery and equipment will not totally prevent their breakdown and failure but it would reduce it to a barest minimum. Also, the cost of preventive maintenance would be returned in many folds in the form of better performance, greater reliability and long equipment useful life. It may even enhance less down time during peak operating period (Adigun and Ishola, 2004).

Maintenance work is generated by a whole range of factors including weathering, corrosion, dirt, structural and thermal movement, wear, low initial expenditure, passing of time, incorrect specification, inferior design, poor detailing and damage by users. Some of the major maintenance problems stem from the use of new materials and techniques.

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How to cite this paper: Okereke, R.A. (2020). Evolving Maintenance Culture in Nigeria: The Role of Facilities Management; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/pmwj95-Jul2020-Okereke-evolving-maintenance-culture-in-nigeria2.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr. Reuben A. Okereke

Owerri, Nigeria

 

 

Q.S. Dr. Reuben A. Okereke, PhD, QS & Sust. Dev., MSc. Const. Mgt., MSc. Env. Res. Mgt., FRQS, FIIA, FAPM, ACArb, CIPM, MAACEI., is a multi-talented and erudite scholar. A versatile professional with academic qualifications in Quantity Surveying, Project Management, Construction Management and Environmental Resource Management. His Quantity Surveying professional experience of almost three decades spans through his employment with consultancy and construction firms in Lagos, Nigeria, work as Project Manager in the Bank for eight years, services as in-house consultant Quantity Surveyor for several years for the Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria, experience as Consultant Quantity Surveyor in private practice as well as several years of teaching in both the University and Polytechnic. He is currently serving his second term as the head of department of Quantity Surveying, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. He can be contacted at  raphicaben2013@gmail.com

 

 

Improving project monitoring and control performance

using Blockchain technology

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr Lalamani Budeli

South Africa

 


 

Abstract

Projects in the 21st century are becoming increasingly complex and require a monitoring, measuring, and control system that is dynamic to embrace the level of complexity present in most innovation projects today. It has become clear that to measure project performance accurately, project managers require tools and techniques that are very accurate in terms of measuring task performance to detect deviation considering the project plan and to take appropriate actions, when needed. The measuring and monitoring of the project is very critical because it informs the management intervention required, meanwhile project managers have to analyse the context of the deviation event and provide corrective actions required to taken and also the way the probability of the action of success. The centralization of project measurement, monitoring, and control in most capital intensive projects presence challenges like inaccurate reporting, over and under-representation of progress, and the use of different non-standardized measuring methods. In this study, we investigated how blockchain technology can be used to effectively measure, monitor, and control and manage complex project activities.

Blockchain is a system of recording information in a way that makes it difficult or impossible to change, hack, or cheat the system. This distributed, encrypted, immutable, time-stamped, and secure platform can assist the project manager to reduce project measuring; monitoring, and control costs while improving project overall efficiency. Blockchain will also assist to improve the monitoring measurement time performance by allowing every participant to update their progress in real-time without the need of a project coordinator ensuring that accountability resides at the bottom of the project work breakdown structure (WBS) and reducing measuring to control lead times. This paper shows how integrating blockchain technology in project management can dramatically improve the ability to plan and control projects.

Keywords: Project measurement and controls, blockchain technology, variation management

Introduction

According to the Standish group, less than a third of all projects were completed on time and budget over the past year. Hazır (2015-811) indicated that project measurement, monitoring, and control are also a major contributor to project failures. Asharaf and Adarsh (2017-45) specified that blockchain technology known as a platform that introduced cryptocurrency like bitcoin, where the technology warrants speedy, secure, identity-protected transactions with its distributed or decentralized arrangement. Niebecker, Eager and Kubitza (2008-145) directed that these technology-based characteristics can solve a lot of technical problems. In project measurement, monitoring, and control, project managers can make it useful for handling other types of transactions, including sending reports, sharing information, handling payments, ensuring completion of tasks, and much more. Saberi, Kouhizadeh, Sarkis and Shen ( 2019-2121) showed that blockchain capability of being a trustworthy distributed ledger makes it suitable for each work breakdown structure (WBS) traceability and fulfillment of its validation test. Barreto and Rocha (2010-443) directed that it can also be a useful tool to manage project stakeholders using the RACI (responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed) framework as a source of trustworthy real-time information.

Research hypothesis

The following are research hypotheses:

  1.  Blockchain technology will improve project monitoring and control performance which will allow traditional project systems such as EVA to improve accuracy
  2. Blockchain technology will provide project real-time data by placing accountability to the lowest level of the work breakdown structure (WBS) which will generally improve the performance of the project management office (PMO)

 

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How to cite this paper: Budeli, L. (2018). Improving project monitoring and control performance using Blockchain technology; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/pmwj95-Jul2020-Budeli-Improved-project-monitoring-and-control-using-blockchain-technology2.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr Lalamani Budeli

South Africa

 

 

Dr Lalamani Budeli obtained his degree as an Engineer in Electrical Engineering at the Vaal University (VUT), BSc honors in Engineering Technology Management at University of Pretoria (UP), Master in engineering development and Management at North West University (NWU), Master of business administration at Regent Business School (RBS) and a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Development and Management at North West University (NWU), Potchefstroom, South Africa. Currently, he is a managing director of BLIT, an engineering, research, and project management company based in South Africa.

His research interests include project portfolio management, agile project management, plant life cycle management, advanced systems analytics, project early warning system, and the use of artificial intelligence in project management. Currently, he is spending most of the time on research that is looking at the development of system and application that uses the latest technology like block chain, internet of things (IoT) , Big data, and artificial intelligence. Lalamani Budeli can be contacted at budelil@blit.co.za.

 

 

Exploring the extent to which SMEs

can realize better organizational performance when various project management practices are linked together

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Adebayo Adeboye Fashina1,2*, Sakariye Mahamed Abdilahi1, Funke Folasade Fakunle3, and Mohamed Hassan Ahmed1

1Project Management Program, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland
2Engineering Management Program, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland.
3Compliance and Auditing Department, AdeFolasade Management Systems Consults, Lagos-Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Adebayo Adeboye Fashina. adebayofashina@gmail.com

 


 

Abstract

Over the years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been perceived as one of the key drivers of economic growth and job creation, particularly, in low- and medium-income countries. However, despite the support from international agencies and most governments, SMEs activities in these countries are still limited with resources essential to fortify their organizational performance. There is therefore a need to find ways of managing these limited resources via moderate project management practices that can help bolster the SMEs projects in these countries in terms of the time, cost and quality performances. This study thus attempts to bridge the identified knowledge gap by examining the extent to which SMEs can realize a better organizational performance when various project management practices are linked together in Somaliland. Using a questionnaire survey design that explored the links between six project management practices that mostly have significant impact on the organizational performance of SMEs, data were obtained from 46 SME stakeholders selected based on simple random sampling. SPSS Statistics Software and Microsoft Excel Packages was utilized to compute the Cronbach’s Alpha, mean values and Relative Importance Index (RII), respectively, for reliability check and ranking purposes. The results show that linking project cost management and project procurement management (RII = 0.687), linking project scope management and project risk management (RII = 0.683) and, linking project communication management, project procurement management and project schedule management (RII = 0.665) are the three most preferred PM knowledge area links/combinations, respectively, in terms of their level of contribution to the organizational performance of SMEs in Hargeisa. The implications of the results obtained are quite essential to the SMEs industry, as they offer creative insights that could guide the development of strategies required for future implementation of project management in the industry. Consequently, the Government of Somaliland are recommended to develop strategies that can support SMEs in terms of project management capacity building.

Keywords:    Project Management, Project Management Knowledge Areas, SMEs, Low- and Medium Income Countries, Organizational Performance, Hargeisa-Somaliland

Introduction

Over the past decade, there have been consensus among economic planners on the significance of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in realizing economic development (Mensah, Domfeh, Justice, & Bawole, 2013; Stimson, Stough, & Roberts, 2006; Zafar & Mustafa, 2017). This has led many governments and development establishments to focus on finding ways to promote SMEs in an effort to encourage an all-inclusive participation in the private sector (Battaglia, Bianchi, Frey, & Iraldo, 2010; Muhammad, Char, Yasoa’, & Hassan, 2009). Consequently, SMEs are perceived as one of the vital sources of entrepreneurial skills, innovation, reduction in poverty level and job creation (Stewart & Gapp, 2014; Zafar & Mustafa, 2017). So, as organizations continue to hunt for novel and improved ways of attaining competitive advantage, it is important for businesses to examine the size of each of their functional areas in order to advance their organizational performance.

Project management (PM) scheme is a keen system that can allow organizations to reach their goals in a timely manner (Badiru, 1999; Kimmons & Loweree, 2017). Meaning that project management involves the application of knowledge, skills, processes and procedures in project settings to effectively, efficiently, and properly attain the project objectives (A. Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996). Project management thus, plays a central role in the variance competitive benefit of organizations and project management knowledge areas helps these organizations to manage the changes that may occur in the business environment (Fashina, Abdilahi, & Fakunle, 2020). Moreover, in recent times, modern approaches to management have continually advanced the influence of project management on the successful execution of projects (Iyer & Banerjee, 2016). This is why more organizations and SMEs are now applying different project management knowledge areas in their projects in an effort to improve their organizational performance which can in turn safeguard a lasting capability in the current technology driven business environment, globally (Abdilahi, Fakunle, & Fashina, 2020; Fashina et al., 2020).

Today, quite a number of successful organizations including SMEs have indicated that managing several projects more tactically via project management processes increases the effectiveness and efficiency of such SMEs and organizations, and in turn improve their organizational performances (Brooks, 2008; Makanyeza & Dzvuke, 2015). In spite of this, public and private organizations and individuals in many low- and medium-income countries have invested enormous financial resources in enterprises in the last decade without yielding the desired outcomes (Ahmad, Ramayah, Halim, & Rahman, 2017; Iftikhar Hussain, 2012; Maarof & Mahmud, 2016). However, observations from practice and findings from prior research studies indicate the need to further explore the connection between organizational performance and PM, particularly when the PM knowledge areas are linked together (Supyuenyong & Swierczek, 2011).

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How to cite this paper: Fashina, A. A.; Abdilahi, S. M.; Fakunle, F. F.; Ahmed M. H. (2020). Exploring the extent to which SMEs can realize a better organizational performance when various project management practices are linked together; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Fashina-Abdilahi-Fakunle-Ahmed-SMEs-can-realize-better-performance.pdf

 


 

About the Authors

 


Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina

Hargeisa, Somaliland

 

 

 

Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina is a young certified management consultant (CMC), professional researcher, educator and education management consultant with over eight years of significant international experience working on STEM education, EOMS/Project management research and teaching, science research and teaching, and capacity building at various levels of education across Africa.

Dr. Adebayo hold a Bachelor’s degree in Physics/Electronics, MSc. in Theoretical Physics and Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Physics. He currently works with Gollis University, Hargeisa as an Associate Professor of Physics and Engineering Management. Prior to his present job, he worked as a Researcher/GTA/Lecturer-B at AUST before joining Kampala International University, Uganda as a Senior Lecturer and later worked as an Associate Professor at William V. S. Tubman University, Liberia. He was nominated for the 2016 Sustainable Energy Africa Awards and shortlisted as one of the three finalists in the ”Emerging Leaders” award category at the 2016 Nigeria Energy Forum.

Dr. Adebayo has conducted training workshops, seminars and given speeches/talks/presentations at local and international conferences. He has published more than 20 articles in reputed journals and is an active reviewer of many international journals. He is a motivated, energetic and focused individual with strengths in innovative teaching approaches, interdisciplinary research, data analysis, teacher training and team management. His research interest includes sustainable living, project management, RE policy and management, education organization management system (EOMS), educational planning, photonic nanostructures of materials etc. He is a fellow of African Scientific Institute, USA and the Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria.

Dr. Adebayo can be contacted on adebayofashina@gmail.com or afashina@gollisuniversity.org

 


Sakariye Mahamed Abdilahi

Hargeisa, Somaliland

 

 

Sakariye Mahamed Abdillahi is a member of Dr. Adebayo’s research group at Gollis University and an Assistant Lecturer in the department of telecommunication engineering at same University. Sakariye hold a B.Sc. degree in Telecommunication Engineering and Master of Arts in Project Management from Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland. He is proficient in communication, training, organization, the use of social media outlets, and the use of Microsoft Office packages such as MS Word, MS Excel, and MS Power point. His research interests evolve around the application of project management knowledge areas to telecommunication projects, project and engineering management, application of project management knowledge areas to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) etc. Sakariye can be contacted on zakariemoe@gmail.com

 


Funke Folasade Fakunle

Lagos Nigeria

 

Funke Folasade Fakunle is a young female NEBOSH international diploma qualified professional with 10 years of significant QHSE experience in QHSE management, training and consultancy. Being passionate about Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and management system in the workplace, she has acquired certifications in Process Safety: Hazard Operability study (HAZOP), Lean six sigma (Green Belt Holder), ISO 9001 Lead Auditor, OHSAS 18001 Lead Auditor, AOFAQ Level 3 Award in Education & Training, NEBOSH International Diploma in Occupational Safety and Health, NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Safety and Health, Project Management, Rigging Safety and Inspection etc.

Funke received a B.Sc. degree in Mathematics from the University of Uyo, Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria in 2008. Over the past 10 years, she has gained significant QHSE experience in various industries.  These include construction, oil & gas, logistics and transportation, telecommunication, manufacturing, banking and security sectors. She is a register Professional/Associated Member of the International Register of Certificated Auditors (IRCA), International Institute of Risk and Safety Management (IIRSM), and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE).

As an QHSE Consultant/Trainer at present, she conducts QHSE training, consulting and auditing/evaluation exercises that help improve the QHSE Management Systems of various organizations. This allows her to adequately provide her clients with the necessary advisory services that include but not limited to HSE employee orientation training, development, planning and implementation of QHSE Management Systems, QHSE auditing, Environmental Management System, process improvement and so on. Funke can be contacted on funkefolasade7@gmail.com 

 


Mohamed Hassan Ahmed

Hargeisa, Somaliland

 

 

 

 Mohamed Hassan Ahmed is a member of Dr. Adebayo’s research group at Gollis University. Mohamed hold a B.Sc. degree in Environmental Science and Master of Arts in Project Management from University of Hargeisa and Gollis University, Hargeisa, respectively. His research interests evolve around application of project management knowledge areas to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Mohamed can be contacted on nuuradiin444@gmail.com

 

 

Governance of Mega and Giga Programs

 

SECOND EDITION

By Bob Prieto

Jupiter, Florida, USA

 


 

In the engineering and construction industry governance needs and requirements exist at multiple levels. These include:

  • Governmental and industry level governance (laws, regulations, codes, standards)
  • Enterprise level (encompassing social (stakeholder), political, economic (market, shareholder, financial institutions), cultural (corporate and national/local), technological)
  • Portfolio and programs
  • Project

This paper focuses on the portfolio and program level, collectively referred to as program in this paper.

Enterprise level portfolio and program management in the engineering and construction industry represents a fundamental re-allocation of responsibilities and authorities between the traditional owner organization and an engaged program manager. The program management function can be viewed as consisting of two discrete elements:

  • An enterprise level program management oversight function[1]
  • A program management office/contractor

The readiness of the owner organization to adopt such a delivery strategy and execution approach is governed by many factors including:

  • overall capital project delivery volumes
  • prior experience, if any, with portfolio and program management delivery approaches
  • inherent organizational capabilities and depth of staff
  • degree of recognition of the level of self-change that adoption of a different delivery and management methodology requires

From the program manager’s perspective, a key factor for success will be the degree to which its responsibilities can be clearly defined and responsibility and authority allocated consistent with these responsibilities and the owner organization’s own readiness. Well developed contractual and implementation frameworks are therefore key ingredients for success but in many cases, even the best developed frameworks are undermined by a poorly defined governance regime and inadequate contract administration capabilities within owner organizations. This later factor sometimes reflects passive resistance to change while in other instances it reflects inadequate organizational maturity to adopt the new delivery regime.

This paper is not intended to dwell on the failings of either the program management or broader owner organizations but rather outline some of the governance features which are hallmarks of successful portfolio and program management implementations.

Governance Thinking

Governance thinking associated with the delivery of large complex capital project portfolios and programs has developed across a wide range of industries ranging from government implemented healthcare transformations to enterprise wide IT delivery efforts. In the engineering & construction industry, attention to governance issues at the outset of program initiation has been to a large degree spotty and inconsistent. The evolving nature of programs delivered in the engineering & construction industry and, more importantly, the inherent risks that program manager’s increasingly face give rise to a necessary refocusing on governance issues. The engineering & construction industry can, however, draw not only on its own experience but on that of other sectors as well.

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How to cite this paper: Prieto, R. (2020). Governance of Mega and Giga Programs, PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Prieto-governance-of-mega-and-giga-programs.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Bob Prieto

Chairman & CEO
Strategic Program Management LLC
Jupiter, Florida, USA

 

 

 Bob Prieto is a senior executive effective in shaping and executing business strategy and a recognized leader within the infrastructure, engineering and construction industries. Currently Bob heads his own management consulting practice, Strategic Program Management LLC. He previously served as a senior vice president of Fluor, one of the largest engineering and construction companies in the world. He focuses on the development and delivery of large, complex projects worldwide and consults with owners across all market sectors in the development of programmatic delivery strategies. He is author of nine books including “Strategic Program Management”, “The Giga Factor: Program Management in the Engineering and Construction Industry”, “Application of Life Cycle Analysis in the Capital Assets Industry”, “Capital Efficiency: Pull All the Levers” and, most recently, “Theory of Management of Large Complex Projects” published by the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) as well as over 700 other papers and presentations.

Bob is an Independent Member of the Shareholder Committee of Mott MacDonald. He is a member of the ASCE Industry Leaders Council, National Academy of Construction, a Fellow of the Construction Management Association of America and member of several university departmental and campus advisory boards. Bob served until 2006 as a U.S. presidential appointee to the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Business Advisory Council (ABAC), working with U.S. and Asia-Pacific business leaders to shape the framework for trade and economic growth. He had previously served as both as Chairman of the Engineering and Construction Governors of the World Economic Forum and co-chair of the infrastructure task force formed after September 11th by the New York City Chamber of Commerce. Previously, he served as Chairman at Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) and a non-executive director of Cardno (ASX)

Bob can be contacted at rpstrategic@comcast.net.

To view other works by Bob Prieto, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/bob-prieto/

 

[1] The program management office or PMO is not explicitly covered in this paper but among its responsibilities are management and oversight of the tollgate process and what I refer to as strategic audit. Appendix 1 contains a sample strategic audit checklist for a PMO in a mega transportation program.

 

 

 

An investigation into the factors

hindering the growth of public-private partnerships in Zimbabwe

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dauglas Halimani, Tariro Mavaza, Farai Don Dzapasi

Department of Banking and Finance
Great Zimbabwe University

Masvingo, Zimbabwe

 


 

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Zimbabwe has faced serious social, economic and political challenges since the late 1990s. The crisis reached its peak in 2008 when the national currency collapsed under a hyperinflationary environment which government failed to contain. As the economic crisis escalated the ability of the government to infrastructure development in water, transport, energy, health, telecoms and other sectors was seriously compromised. With the formation of the unity government in 2009 an aura of stability was ushered in and there was hope the country can finally embark on the road to economic recovery. The government faced massive funding challenges given its strained relationships with international creditors and the massive recurrent expenditure estimated to be consuming between 75 to 90% of government revenue. Given these funding constraints the government has looked to public-private partnerships as a way to fund infrastructure development and rehabilitation. The government still has a number of key state enterprises which could be key to the pursuit of public-private partnerships. At the inception of the unity government workshops were held to build awareness of public-private partnerships among both the public and private sectors.  However, despite the zeal for public-private partnerships not much has been achieved to date in that area. This raises an important question as to why the hesitance by both the public and private sector and also what are the critical challenges in general that have to be addressed to satisfy the concerns of the parties.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The general state of infrastructure in Zimbabwe is in decay. The road network is one clear evidence of this decay. Zimbabwe also face acute shortages of power characterized by long hours of load shedding and the water and sewage infrastructure in towns is in dire need of renewal. However, the capacity of the central government and the local governments to undertake these projects is severely constrained. With limited access to international finance government need innovative ways to fund the infrastructure growth and renewal. Public-Private Partnerships are one of the innovative ways to fund infrastructure. However, there remains little appetite for such a method despite its success in other countries. Therefore there is need to investigate the likely factors contributing to inertia in public-private partnerships in Zimbabwe.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The thrust of this research paper is to identify and discuss the factors hindering the growth of public-private partnerships in Zimbabwe.

 

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How to cite this paper: Halimani, D.; Dzapasi, F.D.; Mavaza, T. (2020). An investigation into the factors hindering the growth of public-private partnerships in Zimbabwe; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Halimani-Dzapasi-Mavaza-factors-hindering-public-private-partnerships-in-zimbabwe.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dauglas Halimani

Great Zimbabwe University
Masvingo, Zimbabwe

 

Dauglas Halimani is 36 years old and a lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University since 2014. He holds a master’s degree in Banking and Financial Services from National University of Science and Technology as well as Bachelor of Commerce Honours in Finance from Great Zimbabwe University. He is a final year Bachelor of Laws student with the University of South Africa. His interests span the areas of commerce and law.  He can be contacted dhalimani@gzu.ac.zw

 


Tariro Mavaza

Great Zimbabwe University
Masvingo, Zimbabwe

 

Tariro Mavaza is a Lecturer in the Munhumutapa School of Commerce, Department of Banking and Finance, the Great Zimbabwe University.  He previously worked for Zimbabwe Revenue Authority as a Revenue Official. His areas of research are: Financial markets, Revenue Collection Systems I, Corporate Governance, Quality Management Systems and Project Management. He has published three research papers in International and Regional Journals on Total Quality Management and Corporate governance. Email address: tmavaza@gzu.ac.zw

 


Farai Dzapasi

Great Zimbabwe University
Masvingo, Zimbabwe

 

Farai Dzapasi is a lecturer in the Department of Banking and Finance at the Great Zimbabwe University. He holds a Bachelor of Commerce Honours in Finance and Master of Commerce in Finance from Great Zimbabwe University.

 

 

 

The drawbacks of the lack of building codes

and regulations in Somaliland: Public health and safety implications

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Adebayo A. Fashina1,2*, Ahmed A. Sheikh2, Funke F. Fakunle3, and Chibuzo Opiti4

1Project Management Program, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland.
2Engineering Management Program, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland.
3Health, Safety, and Environment Department, AdeFolasade Management Systems Consults, Lagos, Nigeria.
4Training Department, Hybrid HSE LTD, Opebi, Ikeja District, Lagos-Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Adebayo Adeboye Fashina. adebayofashina@gmail.com

 


 

Abstract

Over the years, building codes (BCs) have been seen as an important driver for economic development. This is because building codes tackle a great number of any society’s most significant concerns and expectations for health, safety, well-being and environmental protection as well as establishing a baseline for suitable and cost-effective building quality. Consequently, this paper carefully explores and discusses the current construction practices before elucidating the major flaws and health & safety implications associated with the lack of building codes and its enforcement in Somaliland. The study concludes that the Somaliland government would have to take audacious steps regarding the implementation of building codes with the aim of reducing chronic and disaster risk while making progress towards a sustainable future. Moreover, practical recommendations for the future formulation of strategies/measures that will guide the development, implementation and enforcement of building code in Somaliland are proposed for public health, safety and well-being.

Keywords:    Construction practices, construction projects, building codes and regulations, public health, public safety, low- and middle-income countries, Somaliland

  1. Introduction

Over the past two decades, natural hazards and disasters have resulted in the loss of more than 1.3 million lives, upset approximately 4.4 billion people, and led to $2.91 trillion in economic losses globally, between 1998 and 2017 (Pascaline, House, McClean, & Below, 2018; Sun, Gao, Gong, & Wu, 2020). Unfortunately, the poor and the marginalized have been excessively affected by these hazards and disasters. In particular, 85 percent of entire disaster-related death toll have been globally linked to the low- and middle-income countries (Sun et al., 2020). It has also been established that the effect of these disasters on gross domestic products (GDP) is about 20 times higher in high-income countries than in the low- and middle-income (Pascaline et al., 2018). Interestingly, this fact still invariably poses as an underlying threat to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that is geared towards putting an end to poverty and improving shared prosperity by 2030.

Although, attention and efforts to minimize the danger of large-scale severe health and safety risk occurrences in built environment might have overshadowed the increasing impact of smaller chronic risks, there have been an increased evidence in recent years which argues that the collective impacts of daily hazards resulting in remote losses are in actual fact superior to those of large disasters resulting from life-threatening occurrences (I. O. Adelekan, 2019; Bull-Kamanga et al., 2003). Nevertheless, their impacts on low- and middle-income countries are broadly underestimated, as they often fail to meet up with the standards that may qualify them as “disasters” in a global context (Faling, 2010; Sun et al., 2020). Consequently, a notable part of damage to housing, basic facilities, and low-income households influenced by small disasters has been poorly reported and ignored (I. Adelekan et al., 2015).

Taking a closer look, once could thus argue that the present development models add up to the widespread of hazard and susceptibility factors and consequently to the scaling up of disaster risk (I. Adelekan et al., 2015; Sun et al., 2020). Meaning that the vulnerable populations are not just affected by the possibility of catastrophic occurrences, but also suffer from the additional tricky and distributed losses of chronic risks, that often end the lives of thousands in fire outbreaks and impetuous collapse of inadequately designed or crudely constructed buildings (Bull-Kamanga et al., 2003; Faling, 2010). For instance, building collapses are a common, disastrous occurrence in low- and middle-income countries. A predominantly robust model of collective fire outbreaks and impetuous collapses of buildings in India (Raul H. Figueroa Fernandez, 2014), Bangladesh (Bolle, 2014), Nigeria (Helen Ifedolapo, 2015), Uganda (Mwanaki & Ekolu, 2014), and Kenya (Raul H. Figueroa Fernandez, 2014) in the last 25 years clearly exemplifies how the combined loss of human lives and basic facilities/properties in many of the low- and middle-income countries can be evidently defined as a disaster of noteworthy magnitudes.

While data about these unfortunate cases are distinct and not well organized in low- and middle-income countries, a few of them can still be explored in the literature. One of such is the work by Mwanaki & Ekolu (2014), who reported that 54 building collapse deaths and 122 injuries occurred between 2004 and 2008 in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. In 2012, India recorded 2,737 spontaneous building collapse incidents that claimed the lives of over 2,600 people and resulted in the injury of 850 persons (Raul H. Figueroa Fernandez, 2014). In another comprehensive study by Windapo & Rotimi (Windapo & Rotimi, 2012), the authors pinpointed 112 cases of building collapse and their causes in Lagos, Nigeria from December 1978 to April 2008. According to the Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute, 199 people died in four collapsed buildings incidents between 2014 and 2016 and more recently, Adugbo et al.(Daniel Adugbo; Haruna Ibrahim; Titus Eleweke, 2019) reported in a Nigerian daily newspaper that between February and May 2019, 29 deaths and 76 injuries were recorded from 13 building collapse incidents across Nigeria. In a more dreadful incident that occurred in April 2013, Bangladesh saw the deaths of over 1,200 persons, as a result of the collapse of an eight-story commercial building (Bolle, 2014). These cases are quite alarming and set the path for a pathetic call for the need to improve the health and safety of people from the lingering risks in low- and middle-income countries.

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How to cite this paper: Fashina, A.A. Sheikh, A.A., Fakunle, F.F & Opiti, C. (2020). The drawbacks of the lack of building codes and regulations in Somaliland: Public health and safety implications; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Fashina-Sheikh-Fakunle-Opiti-lack-of-building-codes-in-Somaliland.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina

Hargeisa, Somaliland

 

 

 Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina is a young professional humanitarian, researcher, educator and education management consultant with over eight years of significant international experience working on STEM education, EOMS/Project management research and teaching, science research and teaching, and capacity building at various levels of education across Africa.

Dr. Adebayo hold a Bachelor’s degree in Physics/Electronics, MSc. in Theoretical Physics and Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Physics. He currently works with Gollis University, Hargeisa as an Associate Professor of Physics and Engineering Management. Prior to his present job, he worked as a Researcher/GTA/Lecturer-B at AUST before joining Kampala International University, Uganda as a Senior Lecturer and later worked as an Associate Professor at William V. S. Tubman University, Liberia. He was nominated for the 2016 Sustainable Energy Africa Awards and shortlisted as one of the three finalists in the ”Emerging Leaders” award category at the 2016 Nigeria Energy Forum.

Dr. Adebayo has conducted training workshops, seminars and given speeches/talks/presentations at local and international conferences. He has published more than 20 articles in reputed journals and is an active reviewer of many international journals. He is a motivated, energetic and focused individual with strengths in innovative teaching approaches, interdisciplinary research, data analysis, teacher training and team management. His research interest includes sustainable living, project management, RE policy and management, education organization management system (EOMS), educational planning, photonic nanostructures of materials etc. He is a fellow of African Scientific Institute, USA and the Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria.

Dr. Adebayo can be contacted on adebayofashina@gmail.com or afashina@gollisuniversity.org

 


Ahmed Abdullahi Sheikh

Hargeisa, Somaliland

 

 

 Ahmed Abdullahi Sheikh is a member of Dr. Adebayo’s research group at Gollis University. He holds a degree in Housing Building and Planning (Construction Management) with honors from the Malaysian University of Science (USM), Penang, Malaysia and a Master of Science in Engineering Management from Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland. Ahmed has over 5 years of significant international experience in construction and real estate development, and he is highly skillful in construction management, project development, project design, technical/engineering drawing, contract management, tender preparation and cost estimation.

He is passionate about the health, safety and wellbeing of the general public and this has motivated his research efforts in areas such as the implementation and enforcement of building codes and regulation, construction management and project management.

Ahmed can be contacted on ahmatoyasin@gmail.com

 


Funke Folasade Fakunle

Lagos Nigeria

 

 

Funke Folasade Fakunle is a young female NEBOSH international diploma qualified professional with 10 years of significant QHSE experience in QHSE management, training and consultancy. Being passionate about Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and management system in the workplace, she has acquired certifications in Process Safety: Hazard Operability study (HAZOP), Lean six sigma (Green Belt Holder), ISO 9001 Lead Auditor, OHSAS 18001 Lead Auditor, AOFAQ Level 3 Award in Education & Training, NEBOSH International Diploma in Occupational Safety and Health, NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Safety and Health, Project Management, Rigging Safety and Inspection etc.

Funke received a B.Sc. degree in Mathematics from the University of Uyo, Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria in 2008. Over the past 10 years, she has gained significant QHSE experience in various industries.  These include construction, oil & gas, logistics and transportation, telecommunication, manufacturing, banking and security sectors. She is a register Professional/Associated Member of the International Register of Certificated Auditors (IRCA), International Institute of Risk and Safety Management (IIRSM), and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE).

As an QHSE Consultant/Trainer at present, she conducts QHSE training, consulting and auditing/evaluation exercises that help improve the QHSE Management Systems of various organizations. This allows her to adequately provide her clients with the necessary advisory services that include but not limited to HSE employee orientation training, development, planning and implementation of QHSE Management Systems, QHSE auditing, Environmental Management System, process improvement and so on.

Funke can be contacted on funkefolasade7@gmail.com

 


Chibuzo Opiti

Lagos Nigeria

 

 

Chibuzo Opiti is a qualified and competent Health & Safety Consultant and Practitioner with vast experience in HSE administration, training and consulting for clients in the Oil and Gas industry as well as in major manufacturing and beverage companies in Nigeria such as NB plc, NBC, Smile communications, SAPETRO, PZ Cussons group, Dangote Group, Seplat amongst others.

He holds a B.Sc. degree in Human Kinetics from the University of Benin with active and consistent work experiences spanning over 9 years that has allowed him to acquire requisite knowledge and skills in safety management systems and loss prevention.

Chibuzo is a certified Auditor to ISO 9001, 14001 and OHSAS 18001 standards. He has also obtained NEBOSH International General Certificate in Health & Safety (UK), NEBOSH Diploma in Environmental Management (UK), amongst several other professional qualification. Over the year he has attended and completed several other professional certificate courses in occupational Health, Safety and Environment within and outside Nigeria.

Chibuzo is currently a Senior Partner and Training Co-Ordinator in Hybrid-HSE limited where he is actively involved in capacity and human capital building in the areas of HSE. As an active HSE practitioner, he has conducted seminars and facilitated various workshops that are geared towards creating more awareness about the HSE fields and mentoring the younger practitioners in the field, to make them not only self-sufficient but also ignite the culture of positive HSE culture in the larger society.

He is currently a member of IOSH, UK, an internationally recognized HSE professional and technical body.

Chibuzo can be contacted on opitichibuzo@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Impact of E-waste Disposal

on Soil Quality in Enugu Urban, Nigeria

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Henry Ajaelu and Henry Agu

Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Enugu State University of Science and Technology

Enugu, Nigeria

 


 

Abstract

This paper examined the impact of e-waste disposal on soil quality in Enugu urban. Field survey and experimental research methods were adopted. A single null hypothesis was tested to determine the degree of impact on the soil. With a well-structured questionnaire, information on the existence and level of awareness of relevant regulations on e-waste disposal showed that there is total lack of knowledge of any existing laws or regulations guiding e-waste disposal resulting in indiscriminate disposal practices. However the null hypothesis which stated that the existing e-wastes have no significant effect on soil quality of construction Enugu urban was accepted. This may simply suggest that the effect has not reached an alarming level, however, there is need for further research on its impact on other aspects of the environment especially when studies in China and India have shown that unregulated disposal of e-wastes can contaminate soil, groundwater, and air, as well as affect all those involved in their processing. The effect may be time-dependent.

Keywords: Construction, E-waste, Impact, Soil-quality,

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking have penetrated nearly every aspect of modern life and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of developing countries (Osibanjo and Nnorom 2007), giving rise to the rapid growth in Electrical and Electronic Equipment production and consumption in the last twenty years (Sahu and Srinivasan 2008). Consequently, the hunger for trendy and sophisticated electronic products increases the frequency of replacement of older ones, thus creating large volumes of e-wastes.

Among all existing waste products, e-waste is the most rapidly growing, with about 50 million tonnes created annually (Basel Action Network, 2011). E-waste is one of the fastest growing global waste streams and it is a source of major concern as it has a growth rate of 3-5% per annum, thus making it three times faster than normal municipal solid waste(Ogungbuyi, Nnorom, Osibanjo, and Schluep, 2012). Most electronic wastes are generated in Europe and the United States, with China and countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America as large generators of such wastes, Robinson (2009).In Nigeria, and in fact, Enugu, the life span of electronic goods has been substantially shortened due to advancements in electronics technology and production of more attractive/improved models and designs as well as the craze to remain trendy, common with people of developing African countries.For instance, the average life cycle of a new computer as posited by Widmer, Oswald-Krapf, Sinha-Khetriwal, Böni, and Schnellmann, (2005), has decreased from 4.5 years in 1992 to an estimated 2 years in 2005 and is further decreasing and also generating a flourishing export trade in used electronics from developed to developing countries, though up to 75% of such shipments are normally unusable, (UNEP, 2005). Africa has therefore, become a centre for the receipt of obsolete electronic equipment (Basel Action Network, 2014).

Managing normal wastes from households in Nigeria already appears to be an insurmountable task. Admittedly, the absence of a proper mechanism, regulations, and standards for waste disposal makes these high-tech products often end their lives in the ‘normal’ waste stream meant either for recycling or landfill (Oteng-Ababio, 2010). The situation becomes worrisome  where studies in China and India have shown that unregulated disposal of e-wastes can contaminate soil, groundwater, and air, as well as affect all those involved in their processing (BAN, 2005). In Enugu urban e-wastes are processed informally by open burning to isolate, for instance, copper from plastics, under risky and environmentally unfriendly conditions. Most strategic locations in Enugu urban are used as e-waste processing sites without any form of consideration for environmental protection. This condition constitutes severe health and environmental hazards and residents are continuously exposed to this. E-waste contains several hazardous substances such as lead, mercury, beryllium, cadmium, chromium and bromine flame retardants, etc., that can pollute the ecosystems with the attendant environmental health risk to wildlife and humans (Itua, 2013; Opara, 2013; Ogungbuyi et al., 2012).

An estimated 500 containers of “second-hand” electronics are imported into Nigeria every month from Europe with each container holding 500 to 800 computers and monitors representing about 400,000 arrivals every month (Terada, 2012; Puckett et al., 2005). Osibanjo and Nnorom (2011) gave other statistical values such as United Kingdom (60%), Germany (16%), China (9%), USA (3%) and others (12%). According to the authors, only 60-70% of non-functional electrical and electronic devices are repairable and reusable, while the remaining 30% are both non-functional, irreparable and constitute E-waste.

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How to cite this paper: Ajaelu, H; Agu, H. (2020). Impact of E-waste Disposal on Soil Quality in Enugu Urban, Nigeria; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Ajaelu-Agu-the-impact-of-e-waste-disposal-on-soil.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Henry Chidiebere Ajaelu

Enugu, Nigeria

 

 

Henry Chidiebere Ajaelu, Ph.D. in Environmental Management and Control, MSc Facility Management, BSc Quantity Surveying and also PhD in Quantity Surveying (in View). He works as an Academic Technologist in the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Nigeria, and is a member of the Nigerian Meteorological Society and Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveying. Email: mail@ajahigh.com.ng, ajaelu.henry@esut.edu.ng

 

 


Henry Agu

Enugu, Nigeria

 

Henry Agu, M.Sc ,Urban and Regional Planning, B.Sc Urban and Regional Planning. He works as an Academic Technologist in the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Nigeria, and is a member of  the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners . Email: agu.henry@esut.edu.ng

 

 

Expanding from conventional project management

into broader types of services in an organisational strategic management context

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon)

Sydney, Australia

 


 

INTRODUCTION

In the last issue of this journal (Stretton 2020f) I identified and discussed four domains in which project/program management has been involved in helping choose the “right” projects, some of them over several decades – namely:

  • Early internal PM appointments as dedicated Strategic Initiative Managers;
  • Early internal OGC-type program management appointments in a similar role.
  • C&C-type external provider services, with Client Needs Determination (CND);
  • EPC-type external provider services, as part of Front End Loading (FEL);

I also pointed out that, in addition to facilitating involvement in choosing the “right” projects, the external services and the internal appointments associated with these four domains cover a much broader range of support and responsibilities. I also suggested that the latter suggest that there may be further opportunities for a broader expansion of the scope of project/ program management at large, and signalled an intention to further pursue these discussions.

This article picks up on that previous article, but reviews the domain of expanding from conventional project management into broader types of services in a somewhat different way. For example, it acknowledges that we live in a Covid-19 environment, and suggests how this may influence such opportunities for expansion. With this in mind, we first look at conventional project management in this context.

We will then discuss the first two bullet-pointed topics above in rather more detail, under the heading of expanding project/project management into internal strategic initiative management. We move on to discuss the second two bullet-pointed topics, this time under the heading of external strategic initiative management support services. The latter are often part of an even broader range of external strategic planning support services, which is discussed under this heading.

We will be using an extended summary to pull together many of the issues that emerge from this short coverage of a such a broad topic. It is concluded that demands for these types of expanded services are likely to grow, albeit sometimes in unexpected ways, representing opportunities for further expansion for those already providing such services, and for new entrants into these domains.

CONVENTIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT & PROJECT LIFE CYCLES (PLCs)

The importance of project life cycles in project management

The project life cycle plays a prominent role in project management literature and practice. As Morris 2013:150 puts it.

The life-cycle is fundamental to the management of projects. The only thing that distinguishes projects from non-projects is their project life-cycle.

Dalcher 2019 expands on Morris’ first sentence above, as follows.

The notion of the project life cycle has become a ubiquitous part of the theory and practice of project management to the extent that it often defines and delineates the process, flow, rhythm, dynamics and boundaries of projects. In doing so, it also shapes the discipline and the way we think about projects, organising work and temporary structures.

Dalcher then goes on to discuss and list a large number of benefits associated with using a life cycle approach, which I will not reproduce here. But he also goes on to reflect on the shape, efficacy, and purpose of life cycles, as now broadly discussed.

Some semantic concerns with the descriptor “project life cycle” (PLC)

Many writers, including Dalcher 2019, have questioned the use of the word “cycle”.

There is no cycle in the prevailing models as applied within project management – so why don’t we rename it as the project life sequence?

Morris 2013:150 agrees, but prefers the label “product development sequence”:

Most people use the term ‘the project life-cycle’ but really it is the product development life-cycle, that is, the product development sequence, … In fact, it could be argued that it is often not really a cycle at all, since there is rarely an expectation that once completed, it or the project team will recycle to the front and repeat the process.

Dalcher 2019 also has some issues with the “life” part of the label.

If life implies full life, the traditional project life cycle is a misnomer, as it does not encompass the full life of a project. ……

I have some sympathies with these arguments, for the simple reason that I believe descriptors should give as accurate a picture as possible of what they actually cover – which PLC evidently does not. For reasons that will become more apparent shortly, I prefer the descriptor Project development and delivery sequence to PLC.

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How to cite this paper: Stretton, A. (2020). Expanding from conventional project management into broader types of services in an organisational strategic management context; PM World Journal, Volume IX, Issue VII, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Stretton-Expanding-from-conventional-project-management.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Alan Stretton, PhD     

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)

 

Alan Stretton is one of the pioneers of modern project management.  He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA.  In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects.  He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France).  Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992.  He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996.  He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management.  He has published over 200 professional articles and papers.  Alan can be contacted at alanailene@bigpond.com.au.

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.

 

 

 

Risks Management in Real Estate Development

 

FEATURED PAPER

Francis P. Udoudoh, PhD, RSV

Dept of Estate Management
University of Uyo

Akwa, Ibom State, Nigeria

 


 

ABSTRACT

Risk is a common feature in the construction industry and the process of its management is considered pertinent at different stages of real estate development process. Risk emanates from several sources which are categorized into internal and external sources. There are six major stages of project development (internal sources) and each stage has some peculiar risks associated with it. The research also identified environmental and neighbourhood risks (external sources) which range from environmental pollution, land degradation, flooding, and soil erosion to hostile nature of the host community to the project construction team. This research has shown that the prevailing risk sources depends on the project site, planning policies, building materials and workers on site, experience of site manager/engineer. It is pertinent to emphasis that the problems associated with risks in real estate development cannot be totally eliminated, therefore the need to adopt appropriate management strategies to eliminate or at least reduce the attendant effects on real estate development.

INTRODUCTION

Risk is a major element of real estate investment as in other investments. It is inherent in each project within the construction industry in different forms and at different stages of construction. It is a consequential of poor technology, economic condition, political situation and environmental factors such as topography and changing weather conditions. These factors constitute threats with attendant negative impact on the project execution. According to Ratcliffe and Stubbs (1996), risk is the very business of property development and uncertainty, the prevailing climate within which development takes place. As an investment, some properties have a high-risk profile while others have low profile. This depends on the type, nature, location and possibly, the lease term of the property. The goal of an ideal investor is to embark on any project or scheme that involves minimum risk with an expectation of maximum profit.

Risk may be examined on the basis of the fundamental components or sources of risk and making predictions on how future returns will be affected by each fundamental risk (Geddes, 2002). In any real estate investment setting, there are bound to be areas of concern but its extent would be a function of the responses of the investor. Elsinga and Hoestra (2005) identified environmental risks which are disasters that affect human lives and properties, as well as the values of such properties within a given environment, as a result of actions of man and some natural phenomenon. They listed such disasters as pollution, land degradation, flooding, soil erosion and atmospheric contamination. The pollution may come from air, water or noise pollution.

An investment is considered risky when the investor is not sure of the expected returns which he will realize from the investment. Investment options that are highly risky in nature needs to have high return potentials which can attract risk prone investors to venture into such areas of investment. Risk prone investors offer to take higher risk as against risk averse investors who hesitate to take certain risk. Over time, the variance of actual return from expected return can be measured and used to help determine probability level. The degree of variability of the actual return from the estimated return of investment as well as the possibility of loss of capital reflects the risk elements of investment (Ubom, 2010). This clearly indicated that where the degree of variability is higher, the risk involved in the investment is certainly higher and vice versa. Thus, the influence of risk on real estate investment have forced many property investors to adopt wrong development strategies which result in poor construction leading to collapse of several buildings and structures in different urban centres of Nigeria.

Since risk is a common feature of all forms of investment, the process of its management is considered the main stay of major development process. Risk management as it relate to real estate development is a collaborative effort to drive the project to the targeted goal through the process of identifying and evaluating the project at different stages with the aim of mitigating any risks that may cause harm to workers, damages to property, the project site and the surrounding environment.

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How to cite this paper: Udoudoh, F.P. (2020). Risks Management in Real Estate Development; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Udoudoh-risks-management-in-real-estate-development2.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr. Francis P. Udoudoh

Associate Professor
Department of Estate Management
University of Uyo, Nigeria

 

 Dr. Francis P. Udoudohis an Associate Professor in the Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Nigeria. He holds a Diploma in Town and Regional Planning from the erstwhile Polytechnic, Calabar, Cross River State before proceeding to the premier University of Nigeria, Nsukka where he bagged a BSc degree in Estate Management; and later MSc and PhD with specialization in Real Estate Development Appraisal and Urban Infrastructure Economics.

He is an Associate Member of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, and registered with the Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). Dr Udoudoh had served as editor of several research journals including the Journal of Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Real Estate Journal, Journal of Environmental Design, and Artist Journal. He is a prolific writer who has published well over 55 articles in both local and offshore journals. He is the author of Real Estate and Infrastructure Economics in Nigeria and co-editor of Real Estate Development and Issues of Sustainability in Nigeria.

He was Head, Department of Estate Management (2015 – 2020), and later served as Vice Dean of Faculty of Environmental Studies in University of Uyo, Nigeria. He can be contacted at frankpee63@yahoo.com.

 

Organizational Transformation in the Era of the Project Economy

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Xiaojin Wang, PhD

Yunnan University
Kunming, Yunnan Province, China

Translated by Yu Yanjuan

 


 

In the era of the Project Economy, changes in technology, demographics and space-time characteristics will drive social transformation, which will have a direct impact on various organizations, and thus promote them to adapt. Those organizations that cannot adapt to social transformation will not survive and thrive. Here are some tips on organizational transformation in the era of the Project Economy.

Differentiate between repetitive work and unique projects

In the Project Economy, work will be further polarized with one pole being repetitive work and the other being unique projects. In order to adapt to this trend, organizations must separate repetitive work from unique projects, because their management methods differ. Repetitive work, which is mainly completed by machines assisted by humans according to established operating procedures, aims to maintain the survival and progressive development of the organization. Unique projects, which are mainly completed by humans with creative efforts aided by machines, aim to achieve organizational innovation and leaping development.

For example, a revolving door manufacturing enterprise, which produces according to customer orders, has been suffering serious seasonal business volume fluctuations so much that it is unable to prepare a feasible annual production plan. I suggest that they should try to separate the standardized spare parts production and carry it out stably as repetitive work; the design, manufacturing and installation tailored to the specific needs of customers should be carried out as unique projects, and the guidance of customer needs should also be strengthened. This suggestion is not only conducive to maintaining the production of standardized spare parts, but also conducive to showing the unique characteristics of the final products. The final product may be 70% standardized parts plus 30% special parts, but the price is 30% of the former plus 70% of the latter. This approach can not only solve the problem of business volume fluctuations, but also strengthen the core competitiveness.

Organizations should adopt artificial intelligence technology to intelligentize more and more repetitive work. In the process of intelligentizing work, organizations must be active enough not to wait for others to design relevant software or make relevant machines and use them passively, though sometimes passive application is necessary. Here’s how to achieve work intelligentizing: to carry out work practice; to carry out systematic review; to improve work knowledge; to structurize the work process; to clarify the work objectives. Many organizations do well in the very first step, but the latter. After all these steps are completed, organizations need to find AI technical experts to help intelligentize work.

Establish a project-team-centered organizational structure

The traditional “pyramid plus functional department” organizational structure results from industrial revolution. Its premise is a stable market and basically unchanged customer demand; its core is to reduce production costs by relying on large-scale repetitive production; its means is that every level of personnel and every functional department carry out responsibilities in strict accordance with the rules and regulations. In the era of the Project Economy, the premise of functional structure no longer exists. Although the functional structure will not disappear completely, in many organizations, it should withdraw from its original dominant position and gradually give way to the project-team-centered structure.

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How to cite this paper: Wang, X. (2020). Organizational Transformation in the Era of the Project Economy; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue VII, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/pmwj95-Jul2020-Wang-organizational-transformation-in-era-of-project-economy.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Xiaojin Wang, PhD

Yunnan University
Kunming, Yunnan Province, China

 

 

Xiaojin Wang, Ph.D, PMP, is a professor of project management at Yunnan University in Southwestern China; he is also a project management trainer and consultant. He started his project management career at a large civil project in 1983. After 13 years of practicing project management, he went to RMIT University in Australia to study the Master course of project management in 1996. From 1998 to 2001, he completed a Ph.D., researching the topic “Project Management Culture”. In November 2001, his research paper “Dimensions and Current Status of the Project Management Culture” won the PMI Educational Foundation International Student Paper of the Year Award.

In 2002, he joined Yunnan University to teach project management. It is the year of 2002 when Yunnan University launched the post-graduate (Master’s Degree) program in project management. Yunnan University was founded in 1922. It is one of the earliest comprehensive universities in Southwest China. He is the author of 20 project management books (In Chinese), for example, “Project Management Methodology”, “Dr. Wang’s Guide to PMP® Exam”, and “Creating Original Values through Projects”. He is also the author of many project management papers/articles, for example, “Project Management: From Traditional to Agile Approach”. Five of his academic papers were published in the Project Management Journal and International Journal of Project Management.

For Prof Wang, project management is not merely a career, but a way of life. His bond with project management has lasted so long that it seems to have penetrated every corner of his life. Project management way of thinking enabled him to form the habit of running and helps him deal with almost everything. He started outdoor running at the age of 53 in 2015. By doing projects to develop and maintain his capabilities, he has extended his single running distance from 5 kilometers to 10 kilometers to 20 kilometers and to 30 kilometers. He now performs a 30-kilometer run every week. The running exercise is very good for his health.

Prof Xiaojin Wang can be contacted at xjwang@ynu.edu.cn

 

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