Hypothetical Assessment of Climate Variability performance


in Anambra-Imo River Basin using

Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis



By Anthony N. Ezemerihe, PhD

Enugu State University of Science and Technology

Enugu, Nigeria


The aim of the study is to carry out hypothetical analysis of the climate variability performance using Pearson’s product moment correlation in Anambra-Imo River basin.  The objective is to achieve climate change solution in the river basin planning and management in order to bring together fragmented water users into integrated planning, allocation and management framework essential for climate change adaptation with goal potential to multiple sustainability challenges.  The methodology involves the use of questionnaires to elicit responses of project workers and staff of the river basin.  The result of the questionnaire responses show that the computed coefficient of correlation (r) is a linear trend line based on the scatter diagram.  The work concluded that the responses of respondents are consistent.  It was recommended that since many uncertainties in climate change projections impact on the ecosystem, optimal strategies should incorporate delivering benefits irrespective of climate conditions, through status assessment, understanding assumptions made, long term consistent monitoring of data, effectiveness and cost of efficiency.

Keywords:  Climate variability, optimal strategies, sustainability challenges, effectiveness.

1.0   Introduction

Climate variability has a serious impact with wide range of implementation strategies. These include changes in water temperatures river flow, recharge of groundwater, water availability, intensity and frequency of extreme events such as floods and droughts, rise in sea level and saltwater intrusion, pollution land changes and water quality which are the most relevant physical and chemical factors (Bates, kandzawicz, Wu and Palutikof, 2008).  There is a clear indication that River basin problem in a climate change situation is a decision problem and the issues on decision are bordering on the following:

    1. Fluctuation in rainfall, temperature, and other climate change conditions which affect the delivery of benefits to the River Basin Development.
    2. Lack of clear understanding of the assumptions made and uncertainties related to such assumptions on projections and scenarios based on climate change models affects improvement in Anambra – Imo River Basin Management Planning.
    3. Inadequate use of range of climate projections and scenarios by Managers in the River Basin Management planning in order to accept and work within the content of uncertain future
    4. Lack of primary consideration of direct impact of climate change for water bodies as well as secondary impacts (indirect impacts of climate change due to society’s adaptation and mitigation activities)
    5. Lack of proper use of climate change indicators with long term consistent monitoring data to improve prediction of flood risks and forecast for water scarcity and drought.
    6. Non employment of long-term effectiveness and cost efficiency under changing climatic conditions evaluation as programme of measures for River Basin Management.
    7. There is food insecurity and freshwater quality pollution at various locations due to overflows, heritage source/cultural sites damage as a result of climate change.
    8. Erosion induced gullies at various sites of the basin, unbalancing of the ecosystem and greenhouse gas emission resulting from climate change problems.
    9. There are various flood disasters in many communities which have led to loss of lives, properties, infrastructures, human suffering and precipitation fluctuations as a result of climate change in the river basin.
    10. There is problem of deforestation resulting to failure of ecosystem, erosion and other issues which poses threat to climate change solution.
    11. Problem of land tenure systems hamper investment in dams and heavy engineering projects that require arable land with associated compensation and resettlement expenditures affects capital for project development of water resources in the river basin.
    12. Financial constraints and effect of logical cost sharing with resultant overlapping of functions affect the optimization of resources in multi-purpose/multi-objectives capital development projects of Anambra-Imo River basin.

2.0     Aim and Objectives

The study aimed at carrying out hypothetical analysis of climate variability performance in Anambra-Imo river basin using Pearson’s product moment Correlation and regression analysis.  The objective is to achieve climate change solution in the river basin planning and management in order to bring together fragmented water users into integrated planning, allocation and management framework essential for climate change adaptation with goal potential to multiple sustainability challenges.


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How to cite this paper:  Ezemerihe, A. N. (2024). Hypothetical Assessment of Climate Variability performance in Anambra – Imo River Basin using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis; PM World Journal, Vol. XIII, Issue VII, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/pmwj143-Jul2024-Ezemerihe-hypothetical-assessment-of-climate-variability-in-Anambra-Imo-River-Basin.pdf

About the Author

Anthony Nnamdi Ezemerihe

Enugu, Nigeria


 Anthony Nnamdi Ezemerihe, PhD holds a bachelor’s degree in Building from Enugu University of Science and Technology Enugu, Nigeria, Higher National Diploma in Building Technology and Quantity Surveying from Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, Nigeria. Postgraduate Diploma (PGD) and Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Banking and Finance from Anambra State University of Technology (ASUTECH) Enugu. A master of Science (M.Sc) degree in Construction Management from Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) Awka, Nigeria. He has Master in Engineering (M.Eng.), Philosophy Degree (PhD) in Civil Engineering (Water Resources and Environmental Engineering) from Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, Anambra State Nigeria. He has also obtained PhD in Construction Management at NAU, Awka.

Dr. Ezemerihe is a registered Engineer with Council for Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) and a member of Nigerian Society of Engineers (MNSE). He is a registered Builder and Corporate member Nigerian Institute of Building (MNIOB), Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors, Nigerian Institute of Management (MNIM), Nigerian Environmental Society (MNES) and passed with overall result A in Public Service Examination (PSE) from the Administrative Staff college of Nigeria (ASCON). He also obtained Doctor of philosophy (Critical and Creative Thinking) Ph.D.  (CACT) (Honouris Causa) from Montclair State University, Upper Montclair New Jersey, United States of America (USA). He can be contacted at ecatonia2008@yahoo.com