State of the Art and Reliability of Health and Safety Techniques

used on Construction Sites in Ondo State



By Adetayo Olugbenga ONOSOSEN1 and Modupeoluwa Olajumoke ADEYEMO2

1Department of Quantity Surveying/University of Lagos, Lagos
2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology (FUTA), Akure





The state of health and safety on construction sites has been regarded as alarming when compared with what is applicable in developed economies. Most accidents can be avoided by implementing stringent health and safety protocols, however, the reliability of some of these protocols have been questioned as they are not been improved with new technologies and workflow brought by new innovations in the construction industry. It is with this background, that this study investigated the state of the art of health and safety on construction projects in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria by identifying current practices and the reliability of the current safety methods in use. To elucidate the objectives of the research, the survey method employed was through the use of questionnaires. Ten projects were selected through convenience sampling and 87 respondents comprising construction workers, consultants and contractors participated in the study. Descriptive statistical tools was with the aid of measures of central tendency. The study revealed that the construction hazards majorly experienced on construction sites are; accidental falls of workers, handling accidents during machine or tools operation, accident from falling objects and involvement in strenuous movements amongst others. Also, it was found that though safety techniques such as use of safety shoes, site cleanness, checking of tools, use of safety helmet, provision of first aid facilities, provision of workers training and use of nose covers are not frequently used, they are still regarded as reliable. The study concluded that while construction projects are birthed frequently, health and safety issues are rarely paid attention to.

Keywords: Construction Sites, Health and Safety, Reliability.


Construction sector is viewed as a service industry. It generates substantial employment and provides growth impetus to other manufacturing sectors like cement, bitumen, iron and steel, chemicals, bricks, paints, tiles etc. (Abd-Hamid, Azizan, Sorooshian, 2015). Construction is a high risk business, which is a classic dilemma haunting every participant in the business. Its uniqueness, relevance, importance, technicality is thereby not farfetched from its nature which Ahmad, Manan and Turi (2018) described as uncertain, complex and in need of effective safety and health management system.  Ahmad et al (2018) observed that with the advancement in technology, employees on construction sites are bound to follow safety procedures and guidelines on construction projects but most construction accidents occurring in recent times has exposed the lacuna in safety practices on construction projects. It then becomes pertinent to ask how reliable the safety cultures in this industry is since it forms a focal point in our collective economic development and therefore requires much attention in formulating effective health management and insurance method. By capturing the perception on the factors that can influence the safety performance on building sites, this study attempts to shed light to the management into taking account on these factors as means of managing safety on sites proactively and effectively (Lee&Yusmin, 2012).

Oreoluwa and Olasunkanmi (2018) stated that it is important that an emphasis on safety be recognized or even be accepted as being a principle means by which injuries can be reduced. If safety is emphasized, the occurrence of injuries can be expected to be low and, conversely, if no emphasis is placed on safety, the occurrence of injuries can be expected to be high. The Economic benefit stated above also shows what will be lost if human safety techniques in the Industry are not taken importantly. The Economic contributions of the construction industry have been observed to dwindle of late which might not be farfetched from the high rate of human fatalities and the discouragement it gives to investors. If left unchecked, this unreliable safety measures will not only bring about economic loss but also affect the growth rate of investment in the socio-economic development of the country as a whole.

Human safety when put into consideration will ensure the construction site has good design; good planning and uses tried and tested safety techniques. Poorly implemented human safety techniques, design and management can result in accidents, illness and even death (Ansah & Sorooshian 2017).

State of Art of Human Safety and Health In The Nigerian Construction Sector

(Chris, 2008) classified that construction industry has always suffered from poor image, for instance, high cost, poor quality, corruption and hazardous working condition. Safety should be put on first priority before instructing a worker or a group of people to work or to carry out activities in hazardous condition or environment. The safety of workers comes first in any ideal work environment; this should therefore be of paramount importance to any construction company that wants to continue its operations.

The high technology character of the industry results in two major impacts on the occupation safety and health of construction workers on site. In the first instance the high levels of technology applied in the machines and process used required that special precautions must be taken to protect the workers on site. In some instance, physical barriers to protect workers can adequately guard the hazards. However, on many sites, the machines and processes involved require the workers to learn a comprehensive set of procedural steps for their safe operations. This requirement implies that the workers must possess a significant level of understanding regarding the technology involved and the extensive practice in following the procedural steps necessary for safe operation (Adenuga 2007).

Accident on Construction Sites

An accident is an “event that happens unexpectedly and causes damage, injury, etc.” to a person or property.” (Cowie, 1989). The Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85, 1993 defines an accident as “an event arising out of and in the course of an employee’s employment and resulting in a personal injury, illness or the death of the employee. Bhange (2011), in an article stated that accident has the characteristics of:


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How to cite this paper: Onososen, A.O., Adeyemo, M.O. (2019). State of the Art and Reliability of Health and Safety Techniques used on Construction Sites in Ondo State; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Onososen-Adeyemo-Art-and-reliability-of-health-and-safety-techniqes.pdf



About the Authors

Adetayo Olugbenga ONOSOSEN

Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria




Adetayo Onososen is a research-driven, highly dependable, diligent and innovative graduate of Quantity surveying from the Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. He also has a Master of Science in Quantity Surveying from the University of Lagos.  He has a strong bias for excellence, execution and exemplary work ethic. He is highly analytical with industry-based experience in construction management/cost control and project management. He is skilled in conducting qualitative and quantitative field research in environmental sciences/ technology in construction and sustainable/green buildings. He possesses effective communication and writing skills, strategic leadership, teamwork and dynamic people management skills. Over the years he has garnered keen interests in technology in construction, green buildings and research in the environmental science. He works as a practising quantity surveyor in a firm where a mix of entrepreneurial drive and extreme ownership mindset is encouraged where he is leveraging skills to contribute own quota to overall organization growth.

Adetayo can be contacted on Onososen@gmail.com



Modupeoluwa Olajumoke ADEYEMO

Lagos, Nigeria




Modupeoluwa Olajumoke Adeyemo is a Proactive, analytical and research-oriented graduate of Quantity surveying from the prestigious Federal University of Technology Akure. Her devotion to excellence and never-ending self-improvement is a testament to her graduating with first class honours from the 2017/2018 Academic set of FUTA. Her strong and unwavering dedication to academic excellence is exemplary in the varied scholarship she has being awarded across board. She is strongly passionate about BIM in construction, CSR in construction and sustainable building solutions to the challenges confronting the Nigerian Construction Industry. She is currently serving in the mandatory national youth service as a Quantity surveyor with Arbico Plc where she contributes her immense wealth of experience in construction management and administration. Her research interests are diverse but majorly based on disruptive innovation, CSR in construction, Internet of things (IOT), BIM in construction and sustainable construction.

Modupeoluwa can be contacted at Adeyemodupe123@gmail.com