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Milestone Planning

A Participatory and Visual Approach

 

SECOND EDITION

By Eduardo Miranda

Pennsylvania, USA

 


 

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces a participatory and visual approach to milestone planning called the Visual Milestone Planning (VMP) Method. VMP promotes involvement and commitment, through the reification of the planning artifacts and their direct manipulation by team members who collectively create the plan. Once a project scope is defined via a work breakdown structure and relevant milestones identified, a novel construct called the milestone planning matrix is used to systematically and visually capture dependencies among milestones and map WBS elements to the milestones they help realize. The milestones due dates are later determined by accommodating sticky notes representing the work to be done on a resource and time scaled milestone scheduling canvas. The method is applicable to traditional as well as to agile projects.

Keywords:     Milestone planning; participative planning; collaborative planning; milestone planning matrix; visual planning; agile project management

Introduction

Milestone planning is a planning approach pioneered by Andersen (Andersen E. , 1996) and Turner (Turner, 2004) in which projects are planned in terms of their outcomes, the attainment of significant process states, external dates and customer commitments, instead of on the basis of the tasks to be performed. Milestone plans are more robust, comprehensive, easier to understand, and accept and confer great flexibility in terms of how to achieve the milestones, which makes them a very apt tool to be combined with agile approaches. According to both authors, milestone planning should be performed by the group, as “it is important that a sense of community develops around the plan” (Andersen, Grude, & Haug, 2009) and “developing the plan in a group session builds greater commitment than if the project manager develops it on his or her own and tries to impose it on the team” (Turner, 2004), but they do not offer a systematic method for how to do this. This paper address that gap by proposing a participatory and visual approach to construct milestone plans called the Visual Milestone Planning (VMP) Method.

While thinking and expressing a plan in terms of milestones rather than tasks certainly contributes to the plan’s robustness, comprehensiveness, understandability and acceptability; these three properties are mainly the result of the how the plan is constructed and who is involved. Restating Turner’s words, a milestone plan developed in isolation by a project manager and later communicated or simply handed down to those responsible for its implementation, would not be as comprehensive, understandable and acceptable as one developed with the participation of the team using visual techniques.

In the context of this paper, participatory planning, is a practice in which the people responsible for the execution of the plan is actively involved in its formulation. Successful examples of this way of working are numerous: the pull planning process in the “Last Planner System” used in the construction industry (Ballard, 2000) and “Blitz Planning” (Cockburn, 2004) and “Cards on the Wall” (Phillips, 2001) on software development to cite a few. The benefits of participation in the planning process are many: better and more comprehensive plans as consequence of the involvement of a mixture of people which brings different perspectives to the process, greater commitment as plans are talked through and advance the thinking of the group, the development of a common framework and vocabulary for decision making which extends well beyond the “high” of a successful planning session and an overall higher probability of success as people that participates in the shaping of the plan better understand the needs, the goals and where their responsibilities lay with regards of those of others (Moss Kanter, 1989).

Visual planning is an approach by which a team plans its work and controls its progress through the use of physical representations of tasks in combination with frequent and interactive meetings. Visual planning provides cognitive, social and emotional benefits (Eppler & Platts, 2009). The cognitive benefits of visual representations include facilitating elicitation and synthesis of information, enabling new perspectives to allow better, more exhaustive comparisons and facilitating easier recall and sequencing; the social benefits include integrating different perspectives, assisting mutual understanding, and supporting coordination between people; and the emotional ones include bolstering involvement and engagement, providing inspiration, and aiding convincing communication. Visual planning variants are being used in a number of different contexts, e.g., lean product development (Lindlöf & Söderberg, 2011) and (Jurado, 2012) and construction projects (Tjell & Bosch-Sijtsema, 2003) among others.

VMP implements participatory and visual planning techniques through the reification of the planning constructs: work packages, milestones and schedules employed in the planning process and their direct manipulation by team members who collectively create the plan…

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally published in the Journal of Modern Project Management (MIRANDA, E., Milestone Planning: A Participatory and Visual Approach. The Journal of Modern Project Management, North America, 7, oct. 2019. Available at: https://www.journalmodernpm.com/index.php/jmpm/article/view/488)  It is republished here with the author’s permission.

How to cite this paper: Miranda, E. (2019). Milestone Planning: A Participatory and Visual Approach; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue XI, December.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/pmwj88-Dec2019-Miranda-milestone-planning-participatory-and-visual-approach.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr. Eduardo Miranda

Pennsylvania, USA

 

 

 

Dr. Eduardo Miranda is an Associate Teaching Professor at Carnegie Mellon University where he teaches courses in project management and agile software development at the Master of Software Engineering Program and at the Tepper School of Business. Dr. Miranda’s areas of interest include project management, quality and process improvement.

Before joining Carnegie Mellon Dr. Miranda worked for Ericsson where he was instrumental in implementing Project Management Offices (PMO) and improving project management and estimation practices. His work is reflected in the book “Running the Successful Hi-Tech Project Office” published by Artech House in March 2003.

Dr. Miranda holds a PhD. in Software Engineering from the École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal and Masters degrees in Project Management and Engineering from the University of Linköping, Sweden, and Ottawa, Canada respectively and a Bachelor of Science from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has published over fifteen papers in software development methodologies, estimation and project management.

Dr. Miranda is a certified Project Management Professional and a Senior Member of the IEEE. He can be contacted at mirandae @ andrew.cmu.edu.

For more, visit the author’s website at http://mse.isri.cmu.edu/facstaff/faculty1/core-faculty/miranda-eduardo.html

 

 

First Worldwide Project Management

Distance Learning Course

 

SECOND EDITION

By Bob Youker

World Bank (retired)

Maryland, USA

 


 

Most afternoons at about 5:00 p.m. I switch on the computer in my study and connect via a modem into the Dialcom electronic mail network.  There in my “mailbox” are “messages” from around the world from students in the first worldwide distance learning course on project management. After reviewing the material, I send comments and answers by electronic mail directly back to the students.  We know each other quite well now after several months of the course and regular telephone conference calls.

An innovative program to train telecommunications project managers in Africa, Asia and Latin America through distance learning is being sponsored by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Center for Telecommunication Development (CTD) through a contract with Telecom/Telematique International (T/TI), a Washington, DC firm specializing in instructional telecom consulting. The pilot semester length course in Project Management for Telecommunication began in the Fall of 1989. Teams from the Telecom companies remain on the job while participating in the global electronic classroom with counterparts in other countries.  The faculty include staff from the World Bank and other experts in training project managers and telecom engineers in developing countries.  The curriculum builds on World Bank EDI (Economic Development Institute) courses.  The design of the course is similar to one I teach in the Masters Program in Engineering Administration at George Washington University.

Tools, techniques and theory of project management taught include modules on the project life cycle, work breakdown structure, scheduling and control, CPM, risk and uncertainty, and start-up and transition to operations.  Segments on project accounting include modules on project estimating and budgeting, cost control, reporting and MIS, and project control.  Management modules, procurement, negotiation, and contractor cost control are also taught.

This interactive, electronic classroom is delivered to each country through packet-switch network computer conferencing, together with video and audio teleconferencing. The computer conferencing is interactive, flexible and asynchronous.  Teams of participants from each company can meet, watch video tape lectures and assignments, respond, comment and ask questions at the time most convenient to them, their work schedules and their time zones.

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Editor’s note: This paper was written in 1990 for a PMI conference, but was never presented or published.  The author thinks it was the first worldwide distance learning course on project management.  Long before email became popular, the course was developed with the International Telephone Union (ITU) for telecommunications project managers in many countries.  It’s a little bit of newly discovered project management history.

How to cite this paper: Youker, R. (1990); First Worldwide Project Management Distance Learning Course; paper written for a PMI Seminar/Symposium in 1990 but never presented; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue X, November 2019.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/pmwj87-Nov2019-Youker-first-worldwide-project-management-disatnce-learning.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Robert Youker

World Bank (retired)

 

 

 

Robert (Bob) Youker is an independent trainer and consultant in Project Management with more than forty years of experience in the field.  He is retired from the World Bank where he developed and presented six-week project management training courses for the managers of major projects in many different countries. He served as the technical author for the bank on the Instructors Resource Kit on CD ROM for a five-week training course on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects.  He has written and presented more than a dozen papers at the Project Management Institute and the International Project Management Association (Europe) conferences many of which have been reprinted in the Project Management Institute publications and the International Journal of Project Management (UK).

Mr. Youker is a graduate of Colgate University and the Harvard Business School and studied for a doctorate in behavioral science at George Washington University.  His project management experience includes new product development at Xerox Corporation and project management consulting for many companies as President of Planalog Management Systems from 1968 to 1975.  He has taught in Project Management Courses for AMA, AMR, AED, ILI, ILO, UCLA, University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, the Asian Development Bank and many other organizations. He developed and presented the first Project Management courses in Pakistan, Turkey, China and across Africa for the World Bank.

A few years ago Mr. Youker conducted Project Management training in Amman, Jordan financed by the European Union for 75 high level civil servants from Iraq who implemented the first four World Bank projects in Iraq. He is a former Director of PMI, IPMA and asapm, the USA member organization of IPMA. Most recently he has been consulting for the US Government Millennium Challenge Corporation on project management training in Africa.  Bob can be contacted at bobyouker@att.net

To view other works by Bob Youker, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-bob-youker/

 

 

Six Ethical Leadership Strategies

for Project Management Success

 

SECOND EDITION

By Michael J. Littman, Ph.D.
SUNY: Buffalo State, New York, USA.
University of Haifa, Israel

and

Ezra S. Littman, M.S.
SUNY: Buffalo School of Architecture
New York, USA

 


 

Abstract

The success of any project is a team oriented, goal focused activity under the direction/guidance of a highly competent, ethical leader. Project management success is enhanced by the positive guidance, influence, and integrity of a team leader who sets high personal standards in their actions and in making ethical decisions that are followed by all others. These standards lead to trust and stronger decision making in the best interest of all stakeholder groups. This will enhance the chance of project success and reduces the risk of project failure.

Adhering to the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct will enhance the strength of the process and lead to successful project outcomes.

Six ethical strategies are articulated to assist leaders in project success. These include strategies in respect, responsibility, fairness, honesty, courage, and kindness.

Key words: project management, ethical leadership

JEL code: L14. L29, M14

Introduction

A project manager today lives in interesting times. A leader in project management must face a variety of situations and challenges on an ongoing basis. The success of any project is based on a team oriented, goal focused activities under the direction/guidance of a highly competent, ethical leader. Project management success is enhanced by the positive guidance, influence, and integrity of a team leader who sets high personal standards in their actions and in making ethical decisions that are followed by all others. These standards lead to trust and stronger decision making in the best interest of all stakeholder groups. This will enhance the chance of project success and reduces the risk of project failure.

Adhering to the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct will enhance the strength of the process and lead to successful outcomes. A second valuable tool in creating and supporting ethical leadership practices is the PMI Ethical Decision-Making Framework which can guide the project management professional through a 5 step decision making process when faced with an ethical problem.

In supporting the ideas of Reusch and Reusch (2016), gaps must be taken into account when looking at the challenges project managers face in the completion of their tasks.  Ethics and leadership are part of those tasks and a gap that the project manager must fill.

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Editor’s note:  Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in April 2017.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: How to cite this paper: Littman, M.J.; Littman, E.S. (2017); Six Ethical Leadership Strategies for Project Management Success; presented at the 6th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, April 2017; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue X, November 2019. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/pmwj87-Nov2019-Littmans-six-ethical-leadership-strategies.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Michael J. Littman, PhD

New York, USA

 

 

 

Michael Littman has served as the Business Department Chair at SUNY: Buffalo State since 2012. He previously was chair between 1998 and 2001.  Dr. Littman earned his Ph.D. and taught marketing at The Ohio State University before coming to SUNY: Buffalo State. His teaching areas include leadership ethics, international business, and marketing. In 2015, he received the SUNY Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching.

Since 2007, Dr. Littman has been a Fellow at the Schusterman Center for Israel Studies at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts. He also is an affiliated Professor at the University of Haifa, Israel.

Internationally, Dr. Littman is well recognized as a scholar, having served as a guest professor on numerous occasions since 1993 at the Amsterdam School of International Business and the University of Applied Sciences, University of Dortmund, Germany. He also has served as a visiting professor at the University of Szczecin in Poland.

In 2019, he served as a Keynote Speaker at the Eighth Annual Conference on Project Management the Baltic States in Riga, Latvia where he also served as the Keynote Speaker at the Sixth Annual Conference in 2017. In 2017, he was a Presenter and Member of the Program Board of the 30th International Project Management World Congress in Astana, Kazakhstan.

He has contributed more than 96 articles or presentation. Since 2015, he has made 7 research presentations at the Academy of Business Research, many collaborating with his son. Since 2016, he has made 7 international presentations in South Africa, Netherlands, Germany, Latvia, Kazakhstan, and Israel. Professor Littman can be contacted at littmamj@buffalostate.edu

 


Ezra S. Littman

New York, USA

 

 

Ezra S. Littman, M.S. holds a Master’s degree in Real Estate Planning and Development from the School of Architecture at SUNY Buffalo. He earned his B.S. from the School of Management at SUNY Buffalo in International Business and also studied at the Singapore Institute of Management. Ezra had co-authored several papers in business and project management. He is a licensed real estate agent and entrepreneur.  He can be contacted at ezralitt@buffalo.edu

 

 

Construction Management at Risk

(CM@Risk) Delivery Method from an Owners Representative Perspective (The Good, The Bad and The Ugly)

 

SECOND EDITION

By Kevin M. Wills, CCM, LEED AP

and

Steve R. Pancham, CCM

McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc. (d/b/a MBP),

Virginia, USA

 


 

Abstract

This paper is based upon lessons learned from Owner’s Representative perspective managing and auditing over 60 construction management at-risk (CM@Risk) projects for public owners over the past 10 years. The paper provides an overview of the benefits, risks and lessons learned to owners associated with the CM@Risk delivery method from selection through construction to closeout. Our discussion will provide insightful solutions to manage the process efficiently, to guide the owner, and to provide a check that will keep the project on the right path. Owners want to keep projects on schedule, under budget, and to have high quality, so our solutions mentioned in this paper will help facilitate trust amongst the parties of the project through transparency (not only the Good aspects of a project, but also the Bad and Ugly and how to openly address them in a collaborative and tactful manner). Our discussion also provides a unique perspective, gathered from lessons learned from the auditing of public CM@Risk projects.

Introduction

CM@Risk delivery method has been utilized for over 30 years and continues to be used as a popular method for construction project delivery. Like all project delivery methods, there are pitfalls, benefits, costs, and risks. The objective of this paper is not to provide a comparison of the various delivery methods, but rather to examine the use of CM@Risk delivery method for the owner’s benefit and discuss what issues and challenges can be anticipated in its use. The information presented is based upon lessons learned developed as an Owner’s Representative on CM@Risk projects and providing financial auditing of CM@Risk projects. The result is a list of recommendations and solutions to assist owners in this delivery method for achieving better results and better outcomes for construction projects that employ this method of delivery.

Definition of CM@Risk

The Association of General Contractors (AGC) defines CM@Risk as:

“A specific variation of construction management in which the public owner engages both a project designer and a qualified construction manager under a negotiated contract to provide both preconstruction services and construction. The CM@Risk (CM/GC) provides consulting and estimating services during the design phase of the project and acts as the general contractor during construction, holding the trade contracts and providing the management and construction services during the construction phase. The degree to which the CM/GC provides a cost and schedule commitment to the public owner is determined during the negotiation of the final contract. (This is a risk issue. If there is no risk involved, it is not CM/GC.)” [1]

The Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) defines CM@Risk as:

“A delivery method which entails a commitment by the construction manager to deliver the project within a Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP). The construction manager acts as consultant to the owner in the development and design phases, but as the equivalent of a general contractor during the construction phase. When a construction manager is bound to a GMP, the most fundamental character of the relationship is changed. In addition to acting in the owner’s interest, the construction manager also protects him/herself.” [2]

More…

 

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Wills, K. and Pancham, S. (2019). Construction Management at Risk (CM@Risk) Delivery Method from an Owners Representative Perspective (The Good, The Bad and The Ugly); presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Wills-Pancham-construction-management-at-risk.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Kevin Wills

Virginia, USA

 

 

 

Kevin Wills, CCM, LEED AP MBP, is a Senior Project Manager at McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc. (d/b/a MBP).  Kevin brings 33 years of experience in program management, construction management, inspection, scheduling, cost estimating, and claims analysis. His breadth of experience includes hospitals, prisons, k-12 schools and higher education buildings, heavy civil construction, environmental mitigation and remediation, and maintenance for new construction and the renovation of existing facilities. Kevin can be contacted at kwills@mbpce.com

 


Steve Pancham

Virginia, USA

 

 

 

Steve Pancham, CCM MBP, is Vice President, Service Executive at McDonough Bolyard Peck, Inc. Steve brings 32 years of experience in transportation, utility infrastructure, and new building and renovation projects. Steve has served as project engineer/manager in charge of more than $500 million in highway and building construction projects.  Claim to fame -Steve was on the San Francisco Bay Bridge during the 1989 Loma Preita earthquake and was part of the earthquake response team inspecting bridges for the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS).  Steve can be contacted at spancham@mbpce.com

 

[1] CM/GC Guidelines for Public Owners, second edition 2007 by the Association of General Contractors and the National Association of State Facilities Administrators.

[2] CMAA: Construction Management Standards of Practice 2003

 

Enhancing Value Creation through Digital Transformation

Architecting Project Management for Embracing Disruptions – Digital Transformation

 

SECOND EDITION

By Dr Badri N Srinivasan,

Enterprise Agile Coach and AVP
Societe Generale Global Solutions Center

Bangalore, India

 


 

ABSTRACT

Enhancing Value Creation through Digital Transformation

Large organizations in the world are currently grappling with profound disruptions related to technology and competition that is taking place in the world all around us. In order for the organizations to survive in the future they need to acknowledge, understand, maneuver and manage the disruption carefully. The existing operating model of the organizations may not be sufficient to manage these disruptions effectively.

The focus on machine learning, AI, big data, analytics, agility, block chain and digital has led to additional disruptions. The role of the Project Managers has also been disrupted and changed considerably on account of the disruption. Organizations can survive for the future through the optimization of its operating model through a project based digital transformation approach.

This paper has been developed based on the live experience and the real time implementation that is proven at the workplace, especially for large enterprises in the IT domain.

This paper will focus on the following areas –

  1. Why Disruption? How to focus on the bigger Purpose
  2. How a digital transformation can manage the disruptions effectively
  3. How to aid the digital transformation through Agility and Innovation
  4. How do anti-fragility, removal of Retrospective coherence and Klein bottle concept enhance the focus of a digital transformation
  5. Role based organization design to manage disruptions effectively
  6. Proposed framework (tools, technology, structure, roles) to address these issues
  7. Benefits of using the framework

By adopting a suitable framework, the organization will be able to reinvent itself to meet the changing market requirements.

INTRODUCTION

Digital transformation is a fundamental change in how an organization delivers business value to its customers. It is a radical focus on how an organization uses technology, processes and people to fundamentally change the way it is doing business. Digital transformation is perceived to lead to enhanced value creation provided all the other existing attributes and constraints are managed appropriately.

Large organizations in the world are currently contending with profound disruptions related to technology and competition that is taking place in the world all around us. In order for the organizations to survive in the future they need to acknowledge, understand, maneuver and manage the disruptions carefully. The existing operating model of the organizations may not be sufficient to manage these disruptions effectively. Hence, the focus on digital transformation which changes and reshapes the organization to effectively meet the disruptive threats in the market place.

The change that occurs when new business models and digital technologies affect the value proposition of existing goods and services is called as digital disruption. A successful digital transformation includes enabling the business to manage large amounts of “big data” – which is the capability to analyse all aspects of the behavior of the customer and use those insights to manage the growth of the business line. Digital disruption is a transformation that is caused by emerging business models and digital technologies. These innovative new models and technologies impact the value of the existing products and services offered by the organization.

Digital disruption is an opportunity for the organizations to reshape their business areas. It is no longer a hypothetical state across all the industrial domains and it is a reality today… One of the key steps in this transformation is extending the concept of digital disruption beyond the IT department and into business operations. The whole organization is impacted by the digital transformation and it should not be restricted only to the IT department. The focus on machine learning, AI, big data, analytics, agility, block chain and digital has also led to additional disruptions. In business, a disruptive innovation is an innovation that establishes and creates a new market and value network and it eventually leads to the disruption of the existing market and value networks, thereby dislocating established market-leading organizations and products. Figure A gives the details pertaining to the reign of digital disruption in the near future.

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the PM Practitioners Conference, Bangalore PMI Chapter, India in July 2018.  It is republished here with the author’s permission.

How to cite this paper: Srinivasan, B.N. (2019). Enhancing Value Creation through Digital Transformation: Architecting Project Management for Embracing Disruptions – Digital Transformation; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Srinivasan-enhancing-value-creation-through-digital-transformation.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Badri N. Srinivasan    

Bangalore, India

 

 

 

Dr. Badri N. Srinivasan is AVP and Enterprise Agile Coach at Societe Generale Global Solutions Center (SG GSC), Bangalore and Karnataka, India. He is responsible for the implementation of continuous delivery and agile practices in the organization. He has 20+ years’ experience and has extensive experience in process implementation and organizational change management processes and process improvement initiatives in the travel, retail, manufacturing, real estate, mortgage and banking, healthcare and financial services domains. He is a Certified Scrum Master (CSM), Accredited Kanban Trainer (AKT), Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO), Project Management Professional (PMP) ® from the Project Management Institute (PMI), USA and a certified Six Sigma Green Belt (SSGB), apart from other certifications. His extensive experience includes coaching, managing, mentoring and training ScrumMasters, product owners, and project/program managers and implementation of enterprise agile practices in the organization. He has published numerous articles in various magazines/online forums – Scrum Alliance, InfoQ, PMI – Knowledge Shelf, DZone, Agile Record, Agile Journal, Sticky Minds, techwell.com and Methods and Tools and PM World Journal.

He can be reached by email at thirumazhisaiazhwar@gmail.com, and through his LinkedIn Profile – https://in.linkedin.com/in/badrisrinivasan.

 

How to Recognize Project Failures

and Initiate Project Recovery

 

SECOND EDITION

By Shiven Sompura & James Roessling

California, USA

 


 

Abstract

This paper is to feature the importance of recognizing several causes of project failures and initiating the recovery of the construction projects at the initial stage. Project failure can happen to any organization and to any level project. There are numerous reasons for failure and sometimes it is out of control of a project manager or team members to control failure. Failed projects and people involved with the failure have few things in common. In such cases, they are directed for quick fixes which typically prove to be ineffective and sometimes causes catastrophic side effects. In this paper, we will discuss and emphasize several factors causing project failures, how to classify and categorize project failures, how to conduct, plan and develop an assessment process for project failure. With these key focus areas for assessment, project controls and management review process could be analyzed and can be selected. The study will also help to clarify the necessity and a suitable process an organization should develop to analyze project failures.

Introduction

For contractors, both GC’s and subs, an effective project is one finished on time and within budget. The client is happy with the finished product and the contractor leaves with a clean benefit. Everyone wins. At the point when construction project comes up short, it’s regularly because of conflicts and issues that cause cost overruns and delays in the schedule.

If not properly managed, it will eventually lead to running over budget and blowing past the scheduled substantial completion date. Going over budget eats into the GCs or subs profit in addition to being hit with liquidated damages for every day past the agreed upon completion date. It can also impact upcoming projects if a contractor’s workers and equipment are tied up trying to finish up a failing project.

So, what causes the project to fall flat? Any number of variables can lead to project failures, yet often it comes down to how well the project manager or leadership performs regulating the project.

Factors affecting project failures

a) Under estimating the project: A standout amongst the most widely recognized – and expensive! – reasons a project may fall flat is because of an inaccurate estimate. Miscalculations, specification errors, oversights, excluded permits, and changing economic situations (e.g., costs of materials and work) can all lead to costly overruns, leaving the contractor stressed and the client unhappy.

b) Scope Creep & Change Orders: Scope creep depicts the procedure in which the amount of work grows beyond the original contract or DPP (Detailed Project Plan). The three-fundamental driver of scope creep include:

    1. Owner requests that are out of the scope of work originally settled upon
    2. Unforeseen or general conditions that are unknown to the contractor at the time the contract is signed
    3. Owners not doing thorough preliminary work (e.g., site surveys, proper planning, Geotech report etc.)

While the number one goal of any project is a happy Owner, this can now and again move toward becoming traded off if they consistently make demands without thinking about the cost or don’t give you the most exact data forthright.

More…

 

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Sompura, S. and Roessling, J. (2019). How to Recognize Project Failures and Initiate Project Recovery; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Sompura-Roessling-recognize-project-failures-initiate-recovery.pdf

 


 

About the Authors

 


Shiven Sompura, Assoc. DBIA

Engineer at Clark Construction Group in Southern California.

San Diego, California, USA

 

 


James Roessling, PE, PMP, CCM, DBIA

Senior Project Manager at Clark Construction Group in Southern California.

San Diego, California, USA

 

 

 

 

Successful Project Management

in a Low Authority Environment

 

SECOND EDITION

By Joseph Lukas

New York, USA

 


 

Abstract

A frequent complaint by project managers is that they do not have the authority to do their job. Project managers are expected to elicit top performance from all members of the project team, often in an environment of high responsibility and low authority, coupled with the use of borrowed resources in a matrix organizational structure. This paper will explain how to strengthen your ability to effectively work with project teams and other stakeholders to achieve project success without formal authority. This paper will explore the difference between a leader and manager, the sources of power available to all project managers, the role of emotional intelligence, and how personality styles impact the application of leadership and management. Also covered in this paper are suggested methods for getting results and dealing with conflict in an environment of low authority.

Leaders versus Managers

Let’s start out by clarifying the difference between a leader and a manager. A leader is someone who influences and inspires people. A leader will motivate, bring out the best in others, and get people to work together to achieve a common goal. A manager is a person who is responsible for directing and controlling the work of others. A manager will organize, control, balance priorities and make sure the work gets done. Developing and championing a new idea is leadership, while implementing the idea is management. A quote that nicely summarizes the difference between managers and leaders is “managers do things right while leaders do the right things” (Hitt, 1998, p. 5.).

So are leadership or management skills more important to be a successful project manager, or are they equally important? The projects undertaken by a company or organization should align with the corporate vision and strategy, which is typically determined by middle and top management. This level of management also decides on the projects that will be done to support the strategic plans. Note that project managers are responsible for getting these projects successfully done by directing and controlling the work of others. Key responsibilities for project managers include organizing, coordinating, resolving issues and conflicts, and communicating. These descriptors are all about managing the project. You will frequently see in the job description for a project manager a statement about “leading the project team.” However, the reality is that most of what project managers do is simply not leadership. While having a project manager who is a good leader is highly desirable, the manager function is more critical in order to successfully implement the project. The project team may look at the sponsor, some other key executive, or even a respected team member as the person providing the leadership. This isn’t something that gets listed in the role and responsibilities for a project, but the project manager should consider for a project whether the team sees her/him as a leader; or if that will come from another source. Don’t take this as a personal insult since leadership is situational.

The Role of Power

The dictionary defines power as the capacity to do something and includes the control and influence over other people and their actions. In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John French and Bertam Raven in 1959, power was divided into five separate and distinct forms: coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert (MindTools, ¶1-5). Although the French and Raven list is frequency cited, listed below is a composite list more specific to the different types of power that are relevant to project managers (Changing Minds, ¶1, 2, 4-8):

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Lukas, J.A. (2019). Successful Project Management in a Low Authority Environment; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Lukas-successful-project-management-in-a-low-authority-environment.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Joseph Lukas

New York, USA

 

 

 

Joseph A. Lukas, PMP, CSM, PE, CCP has been involved in project management for over 35 years. His work experience spans engineering, manufacturing, construction, project controls, estimating, contracting and project, program and portfolio management. His projects experience includes information systems, product development, construction and manufacturing. Joe joined PMI in 1986 and has held many Chapter Board positions in Rochester, NY including two terms as President. He is a registered Professional Engineer, Project Management Professional, Certified Scrum Master and Certified Cost Professional. Joe has over 50 published articles on project management topics and is a frequent guest speaker for companies and organizations across the country. Joe teaches and consults on project management topics and interpersonal skills.

Joe Lukas can be contacted at Joe.Lukas@PMCentersUSA.com

 

 

Leading Transformational Change

Winning the Hearts and Minds

 

SECOND EDITION

By James Fette

Texas, USA

 


 

Abstract

We are in a period of rapid change. To remain competitive, companies need to move fast and adapt to changes quickly. Some of these changes require significant transformation of a company’s culture, process and operating model. While the change may be important and unstoppable to the company, many individuals will always be hesitant to take on something new and leave behind what they have been familiar with for a long time. Change can create fear, uncertainty and loss of confidence and job security among employees, supervisors and the managers.  Project managers need to be able to manage transformational change efforts and drive business benefits. Managing change efforts requires a different approach than traditional project management. The Learning Objectives of this article include the following:

  1. Define change management and transformational change
  2. Understand why transformational change efforts fail
  3. The key to leading successful change- winning the hearts and minds
  4. Three “batteries” you can use to energize and win the hearts and minds
    • Purpose – improvement vs. change
    • Human Needs – Esteem and Self-Actualization
    • Engagement though experiences, connections and community

5. Traditional project management vs. change management – communication

 

I. Introduction: Change Management and the Era of Rapid Change

Define change management and transformational change

Project managers lead many different types of projects. One of the most complex projects to manage is a transformational change project. Change Management goes beyond project management and refers to any approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations using methods intended to re-direct the use of resources, business process, budget allocations, or other modes of operation that significantly reshape a company or organization. This transformation, reshaping the business or operation, requires different approaches and techniques because the project goes beyond just delivery of a tangible output i.e., product, service, technology, infrastructure, it requires changing the behaviors and at times, the mindset of the individuals performing the work. Many times, it requires a shift in the business culture of an organization resulting from a change in the underlying strategy and processes that the organization has used in the past. The management team may have been the people that built and enjoyed the fruits of the very culture that is needed to change.

For decades in business, change came at a relatively slow pace, technological advances were slow to roll out and be adopted. In the last 30 years, this has changed drastically. The pace of change is faster than any time in our history due to technological advances. Barriers to entry for many business’ have disappeared and the power of innovation and a laptop have the ability to shift business away from some of the largest corporations. With the rapid pace of change companies need to be able to rapidly adapt to new competitors and new opportunities. This may require drastic changes to operating models, development approaches and decisions making processes. Successful change management is key to business success in era of rapid change.

Despite mature, robust project management tools and techniques, a McKinsey study on change efforts has found that 70% of all change programs fail to achieve their goals. This is a very alarming number given the need to quickly and successfully change the business’ and operations function. Let’s look at why these efforts fail.

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Fette, J. (2019). Leading Transformational Change: Winning the Hearts and Minds; presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Fette-leading-transformational-change-winning-hearts-and-minds.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Jim Fette

Texas, USA

 

 

Jim Fette, PMP is a Financial Services and Experience Management executive, with over 25 years of experience leading global teams. Jim has developed a robust portfolio of skills and experience and gets his energy by helping projects, organizations and people achieve their potential. Passions include driving innovation, leading change, developing talent, career coaching and defining corporate strategy. Jim is a Program Success Principal with Qualtrics where his focus is to partner with Qualtrics’ largest and most strategic customers to close experience gaps and deliver breakthrough results. He consults on Experience Management (XM) program design, adoption and maturity and unlocks the most value from Qualtrics’ products and services. Incorporating Project Management tools and techniques, Jim has developed approaches to leadership, strategic planning and change management which can be applied to your career, your project or in developing the strategy for your organization

Jim shares insights at events, conferences and workshops as a speaker and coaches on career and leadership development.

You can learn more about Jim and view his blog at jimfette.com

 

Project Management: Changing

the way Cyber Security works in an organization

 

SECOND EDITION

By Bhavyatta Bhardwaj

Canada

 


 

ABSTRACT

Cyber security forums and practices are at their peak with digital transformation of organizations all around the world. To address the issue of security, several models and frameworks have been developed and several practices have been introduced. These ideas need to be customised based on the business needs of the organization. A project management approach for cyber security is more comprehensive and effective for implementation of these practices. Unfortunately, the IT specialists and security gurus are not the only ones who log into the networks. A project manager can help the cyber security team to run projects smoothly within budget, and on time for completion, while ensuring security of the network and data. There can be a variety of recurring tasks or a major one-time task along with short-term and long-term priorities. A project manager can help run these responsibilities smoothly along with day-to-day functions of the team.

Keywords: cyber security, streamlined execution, strategic alignment, continuous improvement, business continuity, asset management, framework, models, practices, training

  1. INTRODUCTION

According to John Chambers, Executive Chairman of Cisco System, “At least 40% of all businesses will die in the next 10 year, if they don’t figure out how to change their entire company to accommodate new technologies” [19] This is the truth of digital transformation. Information Technology (IT) has become widespread across every industry and is a backbone to business operations. Michelle Pruitt (Program Analyst at U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) stated that project-based firms usually depend on system developers and project managers to ensure the security aspects of concerned projects. For a company to call itself a digital enterprise, it must implement profound changes such as making large investments in the latest technologies adopting new business models, modify existing models, using change management to train the organization for digitization, thereby attaining business continuity. Without considering security one may not consider an IT project as complete. A company should consider enhancing their IT infrastructure to improve its security posture and ensure reliable business operations. This paper explains how a project manager can help achieve these results for the company and describes a framework to clarify communication between the security team and development team. According to SysAdmin, Audit, Network and Security (SANS) Institute, security should be an input in communication planning [7] This paper will also explain how project management can help streamline security and compliance. As of 2017, 31% of organizations have experienced cyber attacks on operational technology infrastructure, according to Cisco [19] and cyber security venture projects damages related to cybercrime to hit $6 trillion annually by 2021 [19] Therefore, the main point of distinction for the success or failure of an IT project is the adoption of best security practices.

  1. IT SECURITY, IT PROJCTS AND IT MANAGEMENT

According to IT governance, cyber security involves technologies, processes and controls designed to protect systems, network and data from cyber attacks. [18] A digital environment may also face major external threats unrelated to cyber environment, such as natural hazards, civil strife or terrorism. Any of these attacks may directly or indirectly impact an organization. Cyber security infrastructure includes devices and components to secure the digital environment and facilitate secure communication both within and outside of the organization. Organizations must ensure the digital security of assets that make it easy to control and overcome any cyber security issues to ensure that the organization is digitally secured.

In addition to securing the infrastructure, a company must also consider the specific security profile of the industry in which it operates. Upon the successful implementation and testing of a new and improved security profile, an organization may gain greater confidence in the level of protection it provides for its information assets [1]. Some of the factors that are likely to shift in the information security environment are [4]:

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Bhardwaj, B. (2019). Project Management: Changing the way Cyber Security works in an organization; presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2019; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Bhardwaj-changing-the-way-cyber-security-works.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Bhavyatta Bhardwaj

Canada

 

 

 

Bhavyatta Bhardwaj is an early professional from Atlantic Canada with interest in Project management practices and cyber security. Previously with Bell Canada, she is now an IT consultant currently working for a utilities client. She has a Bachelor’s degree in IT from Uttar Pradesh Technical University in India and Master’s in Computer Science from University of New Brunswick in Canada. Bhavyatta specializes in optimal solution delivery for software development, implementation methodologies and frameworks, and IT operations management. She can be contacted at bhavyatta@gmail.com

 

The Project Stakeholder Analysis Process

 

SECOND EDITION

Aurangzeb Z. Khan

Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan

and

Miroslaw J. Skibniewski and John H. Cable

Project Management Center for Excellence
James A. Clark School of Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland, USA

 


 

ABSTRACT

A general consensus prevails in the project management community that stakeholders are a prime critical success factor on all pro­­jects, especially on large and in technical and managerial perspective complex ones such as those often encountered in construction and civil infrastructure development. Conse­quently, in order to boost project performance, reduce risk to projects, and to realize to the maximum attainable ex­tent the benefits brought about by the pro­jects after their completion, it is imperative to manage and engage the stake­holders profession­ally and effectively over the project life-cycle. A thorough stakeholder analysis constitutes the foundation of effective stake­hol­der manage­ment and engagement.

The importance of stakeholder analysis is now widely acknowledged and used in practice. Though its application across the project category spectrum, including on con­struc­tion and civil infrastructure development projects is widespread, there still appears to exist a need to further educate project owners, planners and other key decision-makers about unexplored possibilities offered by the stakeholder analysis process and how its practical usefulness can be enhanced. What seems to be lacking at present is a rigorous analy­tical framework which incorporates a set of integrated and sophisticated tools capable of de­li­vering detailed and multi-dimensional insights about project stakeholders with a consistently high level of accuracy over time.

Based on their research on the subject of project stakeholder manage­ment and enga­ge­ment, their decades of experience with projects, and a careful study of existing stakeholder analysis approaches and tools contained in avail­able docu­mentation taken from numerous large and complex projects undertaken in several project categories and across the globe, the authors present in this paper a compre­hen­sive project stakeholder analysis process framework which they believe can supplement and add value to existing approaches used by projects to analyze their stake­hol­ders. Themes discussed include the process bene­fits, challenges and constraints, and the importance of having an enabling environment and acquisition of quality informa­tion on project stake­hol­ders for the analysis to deliver optimal results. Highlighted in this paper are five powerful stakeholder analysis tools which, if applied in a coordinated manner, may deliver all the salient insights and knowledge needed by projects to effectively manage and engage their stakeholders over their life-cycles. These tools are the Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis, the Stake­holder Attribute Analysis, the Stakeholder Issues & Complications Ana­ly­sis, Stake­holder Scoring Models, and the Stakeholder Scenarios & Project Impact Analysis.

Through their research the authors hope to motivate projects to improve the quality of their stakeholder analysis. A robust stakeholder analysis will serve the inte­rests of the projects significantly in the sense that it can reduce the risk of conflicts occurring between projects and their stakeholders and also provide projects with guidance how to respond appropriately in the event that con­flicts with stakeholders do occur over the project life-cycle. The interests of the stakeholders will also be served accordingly.

Introductory Comments

Stakeholder analysis has been an integral part of the project planning process for decades. Many documented examples taken from actual projects undertaken in fields as diverse as water resource management, forestry, social development, mining, urban regeneration and con­struc­tion and civil infrastructure, some dating back to the early 1990s, were discovered by the authors while researching for this paper. Interestingly, most of the stakeholder analyses reviewed are actually quite recent speci­mens, having appeared after the advent of the new millen­nium with increasing frequency of appearance as well as complexity of con­tent over time. Presumably, this reflects an increa­sing awareness of the importance of stake­­hol­ders on pro­jects and broad concurrence among project key decision-makers of the need for understand­ing them and managing and engaging them effectively. In fact, stakeholder analysis is almost a universal feature on all projects today.

It is now generally accepted that project stakeholders basically fall into two major categories: The ‘primary stake­hol­ders’ which encompasses all those entities having contractual obliga­tions or some legal responsibility towards the project, and the ‘secondary stakeholders’ which include all those entities having neither contractual obligations nor legal responsibility to the project but which are affected by it directly or indirectly in some way or the other, and posi­tively or negatively, or both, over time. Examples of key primary stakeholders typically en­coun­tered on large and complex projects, as in construction and civil infrastructure de­ve­lop­ment, are the pro­ject owner or client, steering committee, financers, designers, consul­tants, contractors and sub-contrac­tors, vendors, project manager and project team, and govern­ment agencies involved in the pro­ject. More significant secondary stakeholders on such projects would usually include affect­ed local communities, civic and professional organizations, advocacy groups and environ­men­talists, media and academia, and some government agencies. All stakeholders have their respective interests in and views of the project and these can vary widely and change over time.

If primary and secondary stakeholders come to view the project as constituting a threat to their interests than it is logical to assume they will resist it using the means available to them. Resis­tance which is active, strong and sustained can seriously affect the project causing it to expe­rience cost and schedule overruns, image loss, demotivation of its employees, reduced benefit realization after completion, non-attainment of some of its objectives, or in the ex­treme case even endanger the project’s existence through the possibility of enforced pre­mature termination. Secondary stakeholders who, unlike the primary stakeholders, lie outside the project’s formal control and may not be known well to the project, at least initially, but neverthe­less may pose an especially high risk to it by excercizing against the project a spectrum of options which are available at their disposal. Many high-profile projects have been seriously affected by hostile stakeholder action and several examples were discussed by the authors in a previous paper on the subject.

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019. It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Author last name, first initial. (2019). The Project Stakeholder Analysis Process; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at  https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Khan-Skibniewski-Cable-project-stakeholder-analysis-process.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan

 

 

 

Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Management Sciences at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology in Islamabad, Pakistan. He introduced Pakistan’s first master degree program in project management at his university in the fall semester 2008. His prime areas of research are project stakeholder management, and project monitoring and evaluation, which he teaches to project management graduate-level students.  He can be contacted at aurangzeb_khan@comsats.edu.pk

 


Dr. Miroslaw J. Skibniewski

University of Maryland
College Park, MD, USA

 

 

Dr. Miroslaw Skibniewski is a Professor in the Center of Excellence in Project Management at the University of Maryland.  He is also Editor-in-Chief of Automation in Construction, an international research journal published by Elsevier, and North American Editor of the Journal of Civil Engineering and Management published by Taylor & Francis.  An author/coauthor of over 200 research publications, he lectures on information/automation technologies in construction, construction equipment management, and legal aspects of engineering.  Miroslaw can be contacted at mirek@umd.edu

 


John Cable

Director, Project Management Center for Excellence
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

 

 

 John Cable is Director of the Project Management Center for Excellence in the A.J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland, where he is also a professor and teacher of several graduate courses in project management.  His program at the University of Maryland offers masters and PhD level programs focused on project management. With more than 1,300 seats filled annually with students from many countries, including more than 40 PhD students, the program is the largest graduate program in project management at a major university in the United States.

John Cable served in the newly formed U.S. Department of Energy in 1980, where he was involved with developing energy standards for buildings, methods for measuring energy consumption, and managing primary research in energy conservation.  As an architect and builder, Mr. Cable founded and led John Cable Associates in 1984, a design build firm. In 1999 he was recruited by the University of Maryland’s Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering to create and manage a graduate program in project management.  In his role as founder and director of the Project Management Center for Excellence at Maryland, the program has grown to offer an undergraduate minor, master’s degrees, and a doctoral program. Information about the Project Management Center for Project Management at the University of Maryland can be found at www.pm.umd.edu.

In 2002, PMI formed the Global Accreditation Center for Project Management Educational Programs (GAC).  Mr. Cable was appointed to that inaugural board where he served as vice chair.  In 2006, he was elected as chairman, a role he held through 2012.  As Chair of the PMI GAC, John led the accreditation of 86 project management educational programs at 40 institutions in 15 countries in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America and the Asia Pacific Region. John was awarded PMI’s 2012 Distinguished Contribution Award for his leadership at the GAC.  He can be contacted at jcable@umd.edu.

 

 

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