Comparative Analysis of Project Management Frameworks

and Proposition for Project Driven Organizations



By Tarun Mohindra and Madhur Srivastava

DRDO – Institute of Technology Management

Mussoorie, India




Risk and uncertainty are inherently associated with every novel developmental effort. Project Management integrates a variety of activities undertaken to successfully achieve project objectives. Various organizations across the globe have developed frameworks for guidance in these activities focused on different facet and elements in projects. In this paper based on open source literature review information about various project management frameworks is obtained, and a brief description of various frameworks for project management, their evolution, global utilization, their comparative analysis and tradeoff is presented. The mandate of Defence Research and Development Organization to indigenously develop defense technology and systems and become self-reliant is dependent on technological innovations and development which is managed using Procedures for Project Formulation and Management in DRDO (PPFM) guidelines. To attain the project objectives within time, budget and scope (QRs) constraints, over the years a systematic framework is devised. The intent of this research is to obtain best project management practices from available frameworks, assess their applicability and to enrich DRDO PPFM 2016 framework by augmenting it with the available best practices.

Keywords: Project Management, Global Project Management Frameworks, Comparative Analysis.



Technology development efforts are best managed by implementing project management strategies. The utilization of these strategies facilitates mitigation of risks and uncertainty associated with developmental efforts of a novel product or process. All projects are unique endeavors, and one size does not fit all [1]. A diamond shaped framework presented by Shenhar & Dvir[2] assists in demarcating projects based on 4 dimensions namely, Novelty addressing the uncertainty of goals, Technology describing the level of technological capability required, Complexity referring to system engineering approach of product complexity and Pace taking time as dimension stating urgency of project.

To attain project objectives within time and budget constraints, the framework encompassing project activities must adjust with the environment, the task, and the goal, rather than stick to one set of rules. Projects have existed, and have been managed, since medieval period; however project management, in its modern form, its language, tools, techniques and concepts, first appeared in the early 1960s. IPMA (formerly known as INTERNET) traces its history back to 1964[3], and rests at present with development of GAPPS (Global Alliance for Project Performance Standard) in 2012. Applicability of various frameworks in varying degrees to meet the need projects is dependent on quality standards; customer satisfaction and benefit realization and hence no individual framework includes entire spectrum of knowledge required to successfully terminate a project. Various industries, global regions have their own preferences in choice of framework.

Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) Govt. of India has also developed its restricted framework called PPFM (Procedures for Project Formulation and Management) [4] which encompasses the timeframe from pre-project activity to the post-induction life cycle support. The general tenets of project management were brought out in PPFM 2006 and were updated in PPFM 2014 & 2016. PPFM 2016 has brought out a common and standardized management framework for planning, sanctioning, reviews and accomplishing projects for seven different technology clusters of DRDO [4]. DRDO being an organization undertaking projects across spectrum of readiness levels from ab-initio research to proven system for induction into service can provide a roadmap to undertake projects in Indian context, using a structured framework.

A framework by definition is a basic structure underlying a system, or concept. Various Project Management frameworks intend to increase the project success rate by putting emphasis on different prospective. The frameworks are classified into [5]:

  • Standards – A standard is a document established by an authority, custom, or general consent as a model.
  • Methodology – A methodology is a system of practices, techniques, procedures, used by those who work in a discipline.
  • Guides – A Guide is a foundation upon which organizations can build methodologies, policies, procedures, rules, tools and techniques, and life cycle phases needed to practice a discipline (project management)
  • Manuals – A manual is a book giving instructions or information to be adhered to.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Mohindra, T. and Srivastava, M. (2019).  Comparative Analysis of Project Management Frameworks and Proposition for Project Driven Organizations, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Mohindra-Srivastava-comparative-analysis-of-project-management-frameworks.pdf



About the Authors

Sh. Tarun Mohindra

Mussoorie, Uttarakhand State, India



 Sh. Tarun Mohindra has received his B.Tech. in Mechanical Engineering and MBA in Operations Research. He is serving Institute of Technology Management, Mussoorie as Sc. ‘G’ and has experience of over 25 years in Technology Management. His research interests include Technology Management, Project Management and Science Diplomacy


Madhur Srivastava

Mussoorie, Uttarakhand State, India




Madhur Srivastava has received his B.Tech (Mechanical Engineering) from Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow and M.Tech. from Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune in Aerospace Engineering. He is presently working as Junior Research Fellow at Institute of Technology Management Mussoorie with research focus on Project Management and Technology Management from October 2018. Madhur Srivastava can be contacted at msrivastava.itm@gmail.com


The Digital PMO

How PMOs need to Digitalize themselves and evolve to support their organization Digital transformation



By By Waffa Karkukly, PhD and Ian Laliberte, MBA

Ontario, Canada




Congratulations! Your executives are ready to go Digital. Is your PMO ready to become Digital?

PMOs have proven their success and their worth in the industry; we do not need to re-prove this fact.  This series of three articles will explore the need for PMOs to digitalize themselves and evolve towards their organizations’ needs in order to support their organization digital transformation. In the first article, the authors will shed light on PMOs today and explore, what it means for PMOs to digitalize themselves and the areas of focus to achieve a DTPMO (Digital PMO).  In the second article, we will explore how DTPMOs can shift the current thinking to forward thinking and facilitate their organization digital transformation to move from a project base focus to a product base focus. In the last article, the authors will focus on the ultimate future destination for the digital office to become the core unit in their organizations to connect all CoE’s (Center of Excellence) and sustain a product/platform-based organization.  Furthermore, we will share a case study that explores the digitalization journey, and how one organization was successful in their transformation.

Key Words: Digital PMO, DTPMO, DTMO, EPMO, SPO, SRO, CGO,


(Gartner 2019) Nearly two-thirds of CEOs and senior business executives already have a digital business transformation initiative underway at their organization. Some 90% of corporate leaders view digital business initiatives as a top priority, but 83% are not making any meaningful progress. In addition, 60% of EPMOs are not aligned to the strategic direction, or ready to enable their organization digital transformation.  PMOs need to become digital themselves before they are able to support their organization’s digital transformation. The industry is predicting that by 2021 which is less than two years from this article date, a 50% of large organizations will have hubs to enable digital transformation (e.g. Digital COEs, Transformation COEs, Agile COEs, etc.).  For who is leading the way?

Elements for Digital Transformation

“Future proofing your business as Digital is woven into everything we do” (Deloitte, 2019). This statement speaks to how digital is shaping our everyday life at the individual level and as consumers of products and services, soon will demand services if organizations are not embracing and moving forward faster than their competition, they might be left behind. First, what does it mean to be digital? Organizations today are struggling with a consistent definition to what “digitalization” means, to some it is automating the business including client experience via mobile, social media, etc. For others, it is instituting the myriad of practices PPM, Agile, Platforms, PMO, COEs, etc. and trying to make sense of which way will help them compete in the future. Second, what are the main digital transformations elements that drove transformations? They can be summarized into: Automation, Connectivity, Real-time information, Change management, and Risk management. Digital business transformation is changing the PMO/EPMO operating context. Before we explore how we foresee this happens, let’s explore today’s PMO landscape successes and challenges.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Vanderjack, B. (2019).  What is the Difference Between DevOps and Scrum? PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Karkukly-Laliberte-the-digital-pmo-part1.pdf



About the Authors

Dr. Waffa Karkukly

Ontario, Canada




Dr. Waffa Karkukly, PhD, MIT, PMP, ACP, CMP has over 20 years’ experience in IT, and Project Management. Waffa has helped fortune 100, midsize, and small sized organizations improve their project management practices and PMO establishments through building scalable standards and proven solutions that improved their delivery process. She held many positions ranging from big 5 to small startups where she held the responsibility of managing IT strategy and operation; in her career progression she became head of PMO with titles ranging from director to VP, responsibilities ranging from $50 million to $1billion in Enterprise assets for global and international organizations.

Waffa is a strategist and change agent who had many organizations’ transformations in building agile organization culture and building CoE for IT organizations. Waffa teaches various beginners and advance project management and IT courses at various Ontario universities and colleges. She is a program and curriculum lead developer for variety of topics aligning education certificates with practical industry needs and trends.

Waffa holds a BSC in Information Systems from DePaul University, an MIT from Northwestern University, and a PhD from SKEMA School of Business. She is a Project Management Professional (PMP), Agile Certified Professional (ACP), and Change Management Practitioner (CMP) who is dedicated to improving the understanding and standards of project management practices especially in the Value proposition of Strategy execution via Portfolio Management and PMO.

Waffa is an active PMI member who has held various positions of Director of Communication for the PMO CoP and Regional communication coordinator for the PMOLIG. Waffa was one of the committee members that built the standards for PMI-OPM3. She is a volunteer and an Academic Reviewer for PMI’s academic paper proposals selection. She contributes often in project management publications and is a frequent speaker in project management chapters and forums.

Dr Karkukly can be contacted at karkuklyw@yahoo.com


Ian Laliberte

Ontario, Canada




Ian Laliberte, MBA, PMP, PRINCE2, is Vice President of Delivery Transformation, responsible for the TD’s strategy and transformation to ‘Agile Ways of working’. Ian joined TD in January 2014 as Vice President, Canadian Banking, Auto Finance and Wealth Management PMO and led the transformation of the project execution framework. In this role, he was responsible for managing the end-to-end delivery of the change portfolio for both business and technology initiatives.  From there, Ian then took on the role of Vice President of Delivery, Shared Services, where he was responsible for strategy, operating model and overall operations of IT for Canadian Banking and Wealth.

In over 20 years he has held senior positions leading business and IT transformation through turnaround, realignment and revitalization within international distribution, manufacturing, insurance (Life and GI) and banking industries.  Before joining TD, Ian held diverse Information technology, Project Management, and leadership roles at Canadian Bearings.  He has also held executive technology roles with Aviva Insurance, which included Change and IT Strategy, EPMO, Management Information & Analytics, and he has led Commercial Lines business transformation and the implementation of a business and operating model for Aviva’s Digital business.

Ian graduated from New York Institute of Technology with an MBA in Global Management. Ian’s leadership thinking has also been recognized as part of the top 50 thought-leaders in change excellence, and he has been published in 2014 Project Management Best Practices: Achieving Global Excellence – 3rd Ed (by Dr. Kerzner), collaborated in 2012 Managing the PMO Lifecycle, by Dr. Karkukly, and many other recent PMI article and publications on standards.

Ian can be contacted at ian.laliberte@sympatico.ca




Continuous Process Improvement

as a Function of Program Management



By Steve Ford

Colorado, USA



Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) is the process of improving processes. While a somewhat esoteric definition, the reality is that CPI is ubiquitous throughout industry and is necessary to improve the manner in which a company develops and implements processes (Eaton, 2013; Carleton, 2016). A robust CPI program can result in overall improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of both existing and emerging processes, thereby helping to streamline the overall production process, to include the critical path (Eaton, 2013; Carleton, 2016).

Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) also refers to the management effort of improving organizations via a focus on customer satisfaction as a function of organizational effectiveness and efficiency (Eaton, 2013; Carleton, 2016). CPI is not difficult to reconcile within existing practices of program management, as it is now considered mainstream and is therefore commonly accepted as a facet of program management. Indeed, the Project Management Institute (PMI) lists it as a process within the discipline of program management (PMI, 2013). Six Sigma, Lean, Total Quality Management (TQM), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and Agile techniques all have their established places in program management (Sanchez & Blanco, 2014).

Paradoxically, CPI is both hundreds, if not thousands, of years old and also an emergent trend in program management (Eaton, 2013). CPI includes a philosophy of continually improving one’s processes for production, which is apparent in ancient weapon and pottery production processes (Eaton, 2013). It is also evident in the more recent example of the commonly accepted birth of Lean, the Venetian galley production process in the 16th century. By utilizing Lean concepts such as “standardized processes and interchangeable parts” (Eaton, 2013, p. 4), the Venetians could produce a high-quality, low-cost galley in as little as an hour (Eaton, 2013). In the last 50 years, the Toyota Production System and Motorola’s manufacturing arm showed similar results regarding cost and quality (Carleton, 2016).

As well as being an ancient philosophy, CPI is an emerging trend in program management, only receiving broad acclaim in the last 50 years (Vanwersch et al., 2016). Modern CPI can trace its roots to the work of Shewhart in the 1920’s and his work regarding controls and statistical analysis of systems (Eaton, 2013). However, it was not until Deming and his work with Japanese industry in the 1950s that CPI gained notoriety following the Japanese industrial explosion centered around lower costs and higher quality (Carleton, 2016). Even more recently, CPI techniques such as Just-in-Time (1970s), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 (1980s), Six Sigma (1980s), Total Quality Management (TQM) (1980s), Lean (1990s), and Agile (1990s) are still currently being adopted and adapted by program managers across all industries (Eaton, 2013; Carleton, 2016; Sanchez & Blanco, 2014).

CPI’s Emergence, Relevance, and Importance

The major CPI initiatives include Just-in-Time (JIT), Six Sigma, Total Quality Management (TQM), Lean, ISO, and Agile (Sanchez & Blanco, 2014). All six of these methodologies existed for some time before being thoroughly vetted and defined. As previously discussed, the Venetians instituted Lean methods in the 16th century. Six Sigma practices can be traced to Shewhart’s work with control charts in the 1920s. In short, all six of these now mainstream methods can be traced back decades, which is why the more recent emergence of formal methodologies in the last 30 years is paradoxical.

Even if the methods existed previously, it was not until the late 1970s that these systems were codified and instituted at a global level. Along with a substantial shift towards efficiency and quality in the manufacturing industry, CPI as a philosophy hit its stride in the 1980s (Sanchez & Blanco, 2014). Since then, CPI has been included in every major program and project management instructional course (Vanwersch et al., 2016). It is now a part of health care initiatives, the service industry, and mainstream to the point that the Environmental Protection Agency recently stood up an office of continuous improvement (Environmental Protection Agency, 2018).

In any case, CPI’s emergence and relevance is, like the methodology itself, a continually evolving mechanism. New methods are introduced continuously, such as Lean Six Sigma being introduced as late as 2001. Tweaks to the Agile process were released in 2011 (Vanwersch et al., 2016). All six primary methods of CPI are undergoing the CPI process, enabling more specific and effective practices, in addition to a near-constant emergence cycle.


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this paper: Ford, S. (2019). Continuous Process Improvement as a Function of Program Management; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VII, August.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/pmwj84-Aug2019-Ford-continuous-process-improvement-as-function-of-program-management.pdf



About the Author

Steve Ford

Colorado, USA




Steve Ford holds a BS from the US Air Force Academy (2004), an MS in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota (2009), and is currently in the Doctorate of Management- Project Management program at Colorado Technical University (2021). Steve is currently the managing member of Advanced Applied Project Management Solutions (LLC), a project management consultant firm. He holds numerous project management-related qualifications, including Project Management Professional (PMP), Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Professional, Project Management- Lean Process Certified, Lean Supply Chain Management Certified, and Lean Culture Certified. He has more than 18 years of aerospace and construction experience in project management.  He can be contacted at steven.w.ford.jr@gmail.com.



What is the Difference Between DevOps and Scrum?



By Brian Vanderjack

Illinois, USA



As a professor in the graduate program at Illinois Institute of Technology, in the Information Technology Management department, I teach Information Technology (IT) team leadership, mainly via scrum and waterfall. During class discussion last semester, one of my top students asked, “What the difference was between Scrum and DevOps?” This article will capture the answer that I provided to this student and will answer this question for others who have the same question. The outline I will use to address this question is:

  • What Agile is (and what it has to do with Scrum and DevOps);
  • What Scrum is;
  • What DevOps is; and
  • What the difference is between DevOps and Scrum.

This is an important discussion become Scrum is now recognized as a significant contributor to success in the IT space and DevOps is becoming a key component of adding business value in the IT industry. Having IT people read this article could introduce them for the first time to DevOps and Scrum, encouraging even more organizations to employ Scrum and DevOps as competitive weapons in the marketplace.

 What is Agile, and what does it have to do with Scrum and DevOps?

“Agile is credited for ‘dramatically’ increasing the productivity of many (software) development organizations” (Kim, Humble, & Willis, 2016, p. 5). The seminal document that defines the Agile movement, quoted below in its entirety, is hosted on the website AgileManifesto.org (2001):

Manifesto for Agile Software Development

We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:

  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan

That is, while there is value in the items on
the right, we value the items on the left more.

(authors) Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum,
Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin Fowler,
James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries,
Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor,
Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, and Dave Thomas

There are a few development methodologies used in IT to achieve the above standards, and Scrum is one of these methodologies.

On the next web page of the Agile Manifesto, there are 12 “principles.” One of these principles opened the door for “DevOps,” which aims to “Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale” (Beck et al., 2001). I have underscored the words in the relevant principle (above) that can be considered to have launched the DevOps movement.

So, what can you tell me about scrum?


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Vanderjack, B. (2019).  What is the Difference Between DevOps and Scrum? PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VII, August. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/pmwj84-Aug2019-Vanderjack-what-is-difference-between-devops-and-scrum.pdf



About the Author

Brian Vanderjack

Illinois, USA




Brian Vanderjack, PMP, MBA, PMI-ACP, CSM is a graduate level adjunct faculty member at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), a top 100 University in the USA.  For IIT he is a professor of Information Technology Team Leadership (mainly using Scrum and Project Management).  In 2019, he was awarded Adjunct Faculty of the year from his department.  He was a contributing subject matter expert for the creation of AT&T’s class on How to Pass PMI’s Agile Certified Practitioner certification exam; this class has a 100% pass rate.  He has also taught many classes on how-to-pass-the-PMI-PMP-certification-exam.

Brian’s professional certifications are: The Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Project Management Professional (PMP), MBA (earned from DePaul University “with distinction”), Certified Scrum Master (CSM), and PMI’s-Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP). Brian’s title at the Fortune 10 company which currently employs him during the days as his full-time-day-career is “Senior Scrum Master.”  His track record of success there includes 8 years as a successful Sr. Scrum Master and Agile Coach.  Also, he served as a Project Manager for over 10 years at this Fortune 10 company.

As an award-winning nationally respected speaker, he has spoken at many venues including Microsoft, IBM, AT&T, Abbot Labs, Freddie Mac, IIBA Chapters, and many PMI chapters across the USA on team leadership, communication, emotional intelligence, Scrum, and Project Management.  He has also spoken at the University of Chicago’s Booth Graduate School of Business and Northwestern University’s Kellogg Graduate School of Business.

His ability to share information has resulted in many articles published in the PM World Journal (distribution approx. 15,000), and a book on Agile/Scrum called “The Agile Edge” which was published by Business Expert Press.  He is honored to have received over 1,000 Linkedin “endorsements”, and dozens of LinkedIn “recommendations” for his contributions in leadership and other areas.  At his former university, he was honored to have earned “faculty of the year” for teaching Project Management.

Also, a special thank you to Jeremy Hajek for providing feedback on this article.  Brian can be reached at BVanderjac@gmail.com.


Important Things for building a great Product



By Ajay Shenoy

Bangalore, India



Every product organization would dream of creating a great product, which can be popular among the masses and create a market segment in the meshwork. In the short time, I have spent building great products. Developing a great product may just not lie down to hard word or luck or a great strategy. Vision, Strategy & Tactics may not be mere enough to create a successful product. All the 3 elements hence influence each other. Building a product should also mean to benefit your customers and end users to fix the pain points. By building this it should create a value for you company and hence your overall company vision should align with the product vision you are trying to build. Below are the following things you may need to ask before you create a great product

Vision for your Product

As a Product Manager, you may need to be clear about the product you are intending to build, target customer, the way the product will shape and problem you are trying to solve. If any of the above things do not align it may not create ripples in the market. This will also not add any business value to the customer or value to the company.

Target Group for your Product

As a Product Manager, you would need to ask the below questions

  • Does the market address the right segment?
  • Where do my user/customers who would use my customer reside?

Most product managers would talk to potential customers while evangelizing the product. Potential customer will give you insights in what they would like in the product. You may to need to talk users from different age groups. As the needs of 70year old will differ from someone in younger age group.

Needs of your User/Product

As a product manager, you would need to ask the below questions

  • What kind of pain points does it address for my users?
  • What special benefit does it provide?

You should place yourself in customer shoes to understand his pain points and understand the user behavior. If you want to create a product for farmers for them to sell their produce. Work with them for a month to understand their need, their problems and challenges they would typically face.

The chances of this failing will be much lower as now you are creating a product for yourself. Interact with them on regular basis to understand if their needs have not changed over time so you can build the right product for them.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Shenoy, A. (2019).  Important Things for building a great Product, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VI, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/pmwj83-Jul2019-Shenoy-important-things-for-building-great-product.pdf



About the Author

Ajay Shenoy

Bangalore, India




Ajay Shenoy, a certified Scrum Professional and Agile Coach, has been involved in Technology Solutioning since 2007. He started working as a Solution Engineer and slowly incorporated into a technical program manager. He is a Certified Scrum Professional and has good knowledge on Prince2, Agile, Lean, Scrum, Kanban and SAFe frameworks. Along with expertise in Project management, he has deep interest in Technology side. With these skills, Ajay can help people understand process as well as Agile. Ajay has a perfect blend of project management with technical skills and business acumen.

Ajay started his Agile journey in 2012, as part of engineering teams. He practiced scrum and other agile frameworks in delivering successful products within limited time frames. Ajay is proficient in Engineering practices such as Scrum, Lean Software development, and Kanban and has designed several solutions and market rollouts working with product/services companies. He believes in following key agile practices like Just In Time, Value Stream mapping, Refactoring, Improving lead and cycle time.

He single handedly built a group comprised of 700 employees with different skills/roles. He indulges in several meets/ conferences and sharing knowledge on public platforms like linkedin with reference to agile. Ajay has coached/trained several teams in different organizations; he was part of an agile team to improve an existing framework.

He has a Master’s degree in IT & Finance and is currently based out of Bangalore.

You can reach him on his email @ shenoyajay82@yahoo.com.



Scope & Stakeholder Management,

Pain Points, Perils and Prosperity



By Doug Orlando, MBA, PMP®

Treasurer/Director of Finance
AT&T Project Management Network Board of Directors
President Emeritus, PMI Phoenix
Chapter Member Advisory Group, PMI GOC

Arizona, USA




This topic will provide deeper understanding of project “requirements management” elements, scope planning, and a description of the contents of the scope-stakeholder management plan. The purpose of the paper is to share best practices in reviewing scope using the charter, change management, communications, Statement of Work, WBS, and critical alignment of 10th knowledge area “Stakeholder Management.”  Specific content is from PMI PMBOK® and listed sources from PMI’s Scope Management Community of Practice. The summary of research-based findings will show that scope creep is to be avoided, but in contrast, scope change is to be embraced with recommendations and examples of, what, when, why and how to accomplish this premise.


This paper describes the elements that make good project scope management important, with various examples in the IT and Telecom Domain.  It will:

  • Discuss the scope planning and management and describe the contents of a scope management plan
  • Explain best practices in reviewing a scope statement using the project charter and preliminary scope statement
  • Review alignment of the SOW (Statement Of Work – scope statement) with the creation of the WBS work breakdown structure
  • Define and discuss Scope Creep, and pose the question – “do we need to stop it?”

As we go through this paper today, I’d like you to be thinking:

  • What are some current challenges you have in your projects relative to Scope?
  • How do we ensure we recover from scope changes faster than anybody else?
  • How do we be sure we anticipate these things?

Write down some “Golden Nuggets” to remember from this paper; practical things you’ll want to use and remember in your vocation as well as daily life.

The Project Management Knowledge Areas (PMI PMBOK® version 5, 2012)

Let’s do a quick refresh of the PMI Knowledge Areas:


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Orlando, D. (2019).  Scope & Stakeholder Management, Pain Points, Perils and Prosperity, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VI, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/pmwj83-Jul2019-Orlando-scope-stakeholders-pain-perils-prosperity.pdf



About the Author

Douglas Orlando, PMP

Phoenix, Arizona




Doug Orlando is Sr. Technical Director for Program Management at AT&T Global Business Solutions.  He is an accomplished Fortune 50 professional with over 25 years’ experience focused on strategic planning, delivering complex project/programs, transitions, transformations, and process service excellence for AT&T’s largest IT outsourcing accounts. Productive mentoring leader and global people manager motivated by driving ideas of efficiency design into tangible results. Conceptual value driver recognized for customer relationship and communications management, time-cost savings through organizational development, training-workforce optimization in IT Telecom network operations and strategy with multiple awards such as AT&T Diamond Club.

Numerous technical and leadership positions held at Fortune 50 companies, including:

  • AT&T – Global Service Director, Lifecycle and Program Management
  • IBM – Delivery Program Executive, National Field Network Engineer
  • Advantis Inc. (IBM/Sears JV) – Service Operations Executive

Mr. Orlando holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science, Telecom and music minor, from Roosevelt University Chicago, and an Executive Masters in Business Administration (EMBA) with concentration in Strategic Management /Finance/ IT Operations from Northern Illinois University College of Business.  He has multiple certifications including Project Management Professional (PMI PMP), IBM Certified IT Availability Manager, ITIL Foundations, Six Sigma Green/Orange Belt, Cisco CCNA, Arizona Government IT Agency (GITA) of project professionals, and several AT&T technology certifications (SDN, Agile, IP Networking, Big Data, Security First).

He is an active volunteer and member of the Project Management Institute (PMI), Past Chair/President of PMI Phoenix Chapter, PMI Global Board MAG Leadership Advisory member, speaker at PMI Global Congress, Leadership Institute  and PMO Symposiums, current AT&T Project Management Network (PMN) Executive Board member, AT&T Asia Pacific Islanders for Community Advancement, and the Aspire Mentoring Academy, Outside of work he is an active volunteer in his church directing, producing, writing, playing and teaching at music performances, loves to travel, and has won the PVSA President Volunteer Service Award on 6 occasions.



Understanding & Applying Earned Value

A ‘Quick & Easy’ Approach for Monitoring Project Implementation



By Kenneth F. Smith

Hawaii, USA



This article demystifies the Earned Value Methodology (EVM), and provides several practical innovative techniques to monitor, analyze and report accurate integrated project schedule & cost performance status.

Earned Value Methodology (EVM) has been around since the 1960’s and during project implementation is the iconic ‘Best Practice’ for effectively monitoring, measuring, analyzing & forecasting integrated schedule and cost performance status.  However — from my experience as a practitioner, trainer, consultant and itinerant observer — EVM is the most misunderstood, and probably least-utilized technique in the project manager’s arsenal.    At numerous project management meetings which I have attended, I get predominantly negative feedback to my inquiries regarding other participants’ grasp &/or on-the-job application of EV.

It seems as though even after being exposed to earned value concepts during preparation for exams — such as the Project Management Professional (PMP) of the Project Management Institute (PMI) – subsequent application of earned value is shunned.  One major barrier seems to be the multiple measurements (18 at last count) of which EVM consists — replete with acronymic variables, indicators & equations.[1]  After initial exposure, long-term retention is fleeting and — somewhat like calculus — atrophies for many.  The other major factor is that EVM is both radically different from – as well as largely unknown by — professional accounting, financial management & auditing practices and practitioners.

This is regrettable, because without applying earned value analysis, invalid cost performance assessments are usually made, which – unless successfully rebutted by the project manager – result in inappropriate recommendations, triggering incorrect executive management decisions and action!

Comparing the Actual Work Completed vs. the Baseline Work Schedule during each reporting period – as shown in Figure 1 — is a logical and valid practice for monitoring physical work performance.

FIGURE 1– Work vs. Schedule

However, although perhaps useful for cash flow analysis and other financial management purposes, comparing the Actual Cost vs. the Baseline Budget Schedule for each time period (as shown in Figure 2) is insufficient, as it is not relevant and mostly erroneous – for assessing project Cost Performance.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Smith, K. F. (2019).  Understanding & Applying Earned Value: A ‘Quick & Easy’ Approach for Monitoring Project Implementation, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue V, June. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/pmwj82-Jun2019-Smith-Understanding-and-Applying-Earned-Value.pdf



About the Author

Dr. Kenneth F. Smith

Hawaii, USA



Dr. Kenneth Smith, PMP is a member of PMI and IPMA-USA, with many years of experience as a practitioner, researcher-evaluator, advisor, consultant and instructor/facilitator in project management.  He was formerly a management systems specialist with the US Department of Defense; later a manager / advisor / evaluator on various sector projects — world-wide — as a representative of the US Government and the international development donor community — i.e. the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the World Bank Group, African Development Bank, the UN, and the Asian Development Bank.  Dr. Smith now conducts workshop-seminars in various aspects of project management, monitoring and evaluation for PMI as well as other government, academic, and private sector organizations.  [These and other analytical techniques for project planning, monitoring and evaluation are contained and available in his recently published book Project Management PRAXIS, available from Amazon.]

For further information, contact Dr. Smith at kenfsmith@aol.com.


[1] Of which several indicators in this ‘formula fog’ – IMO – are exhaustively, but pedantically trivial.  Furthermore, some indicators are frighteningly complex – or deceptively simple – amalgamations of indicators with variables derived from other equations, and at least one is counter-intuitively formulated with the negative resultant being a positive outcome, and vice versaBut I digress . . . !


Estimation in Story Points



By Ajay Shenoy

Bangalore, India



Agile Projects integrate numerous techniques that will not work in waterfall for estimation. One such technique is estimating the size of user stories with abstract measures of effort and use of story points to define effort of work, which can be completed in a sprint.

Scrum Project Teams can implement a set of features, which are broken down into stories, which can be completed by the scrum team in short sprints. User Stories would be broadly pulled in from the Product backlog, which would be in the priority order set by the Product Owner. The Scrum team may not be able to implement all stories present in the product backlog in a single sprint, so there could be different stories, which could be pulled up from the product backlog. The number of stories depends on the amount of effort it takes to fully implement each story.

Sprint Planning

One of the ceremonies in Scrum is Sprint planning meeting where the team would estimate out all the tasks associated with each user story and in the Sprint Backlog. All the required resources needed to complete all the tasks for each sprint is considered during effort estimation. A shared task list is created to estimate the duration and effort of each user story in Sprint backlog. This practices the shared responsibility among agile teams, which results in common estimation process, which is consistent.

How to Scrum Team Estimate?

The most commonly used technique in Scrum is the usage of Story points to represent the relative effort of user story or task. Although estimating in hours is very common in traditional waterfall projects but is rarely used in agile. A common approach used is usage of story points to estimate the relative complexity while implementing a user story. You can set any value to a story point that a scrum team decides upon. Each scrum team will have their own scale of Story point. There would be no set value defined to a story point. Although the value needs to be consistent across the team. The scale of story point may not be the same scale, which another scrum may use.

Story points are typically based on modified Fibonacci series, which is a number sequence. The sequence goes like 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40, and 100. For Example, the team might have decided that value of a story point is 1 day, and so 5-story point will have a value of 5 days. If team has picked User Story A and assigned 1 story point. If team picks Story B and think it will take twice the effort to implement, team would assign 2 story points to user story B. There is no per-define formula about use of 1 or 2 story points. Another scrum team might assign this same two story 8 & 16 respectively depending on the scale they have agreed upon.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article:  Shenoy, A. (2019). Estimation in Story Points, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue V, June. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/pmwj82-Jun2019-Shenoy-estimation-in-story-points.pdf



About the Author

Ajay Shenoy

Bangalore, India



Ajay Shenoy, a certified Scrum Professional and Agile Coach, has been involved in Technology Solutioning since 2007. He started working as a Solution Engineer and slowly incorporated into a technical program manager. He is a Certified Scrum Professional and has good knowledge on Prince2, Agile, Lean, Scrum, Kanban and SAFe frameworks. Along with expertise in Project management, he has deep interest in Technology side. With these skills, Ajay can help people understand process as well as Agile. Ajay has a perfect blend of project management with technical skills and business acumen.

Ajay started his Agile journey in 2012, as part of engineering teams. He practiced scrum and other agile frameworks in delivering successful products within limited time frames. Ajay is proficient in Engineering practices such as Scrum, Lean Software development, and Kanban and has designed several solutions and market rollouts working with product/services companies. He believes in following key agile practices like Just In Time, Value Stream mapping, Refactoring, Improving lead and cycle time.

He single handedly built a group comprised of 700 employees with different skills/roles. He indulges in several meets/ conferences and sharing knowledge on public platforms like linkedin with reference to agile. Ajay has coached/trained several teams in different organizations; he was part of an agile team to improve an existing framework.

He has a Master’s degree in IT & Finance and is currently based out of Bangalore. You can reach him on his email @ shenoyajay82@yahoo.com.



Playing with Ratios



By Anil Seth

Fluor India

Gurgaon, India



Ratios will tell the full measure of meaning, if you have enough of them.

~ Unknown


In any of your Project, have you ever experienced that applying right ratio at right time provides right understanding and this is always taken as a welcome step. However the ratios can also create misunderstandings,

How to handle ratios to estimate the Project?

Many of us live on thumb rules or create certain rules like what I found in one of the interesting student paper by Janette Chea 1.The ratios are there to make our self ,comfortable, these are always to be backed by findings or working logic. E.g. if we are working for EPC (Engineering, Procurement & Construction) lump sum estimate, the general goby is –

E: P: C ~10:60:30.

Some of you may react that this is not always true. Well, these are thumb rules getting converted in to real scenarios after execution and eventually coming as Work Break down Structure in Tenders to bid. This Engineering “10” can also be broken down into other goals like:

  1. Engineering: Project Support~70:30
  2. Project Engineering~10-12%

Process Engineering~5-7%

Mechanical Engineering ~8-13%

Electrical Engineering ~7-9%

Instrumentation Engineering ~7-10%

Piping Engineering ~20-28%

Civil /Structural/Arch Engineering ~20-26%

Is this right! …..Again it’s an oil & gas perception based on scope of work.

Another interesting way of utilizing the ratios is the engineering bottoms up approach. This follows a logical methodology wherein the primary discipline calculates the efforts and rest is bottoms roll up:

  1. Identify the primary discipline.
  2. Workout the estimate based on certain factors (like Plant capacity/Equipment Count/Area footprint etc.).
  3. Divide the estimate with universal ratio (derived and modified to use through historical database) to arrive at overall estimate required.
  4. Modify the overall as per RISK reviewed i.e. addition /deletion due to event/estimate contingency.

Those in engineering services are very much familiar with Front-End Loading [FEL2 or FEL3], in the majority of projects for FEL2 estimation needs many Project Managers factor their engineering from total installed cost (TIC). Incase somebody requires a mature understanding a 2paper by Melissa C. Matthews is a good read, the focus of this paper is to look at specific practices that are used to create FEL 2 estimates and determine the benefits and tradeoffs of using detailed information and techniques.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article:  How to cite this article: Seth, A. (2019). Playing with Ratios. PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IV (May). Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/pmwj81-May2019-Seth-Playing-with-Ratios-advisory.pdf



About the Author


Anil Seth

Gurgaon, India



Mr. Anil Seth is working as Project Manager in Fluor’s Indian office at Gurgaon. Fluor Daniel India Private Limited (Fluor India) provides a full range of engineering, design, procurement, and construction management services to Indian and overseas clients. Fluor India is an established quality provider of engineering, procurement, construction management (EPC) and project management services for Fluor’s energy and chemicals, power, mining, and industrial projects, and is a key support office for Fluor facilities located in North America, Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia Pacific

Earlier to Fluor, was in Larsen & Toubro Ltd. at Faridabad, India and managing the Project Engineering Manager Portfolio for hydrocarbon projects. Before joining Larsen & Toubro Engineering and construction division he has worked for Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited. He holds B.E. degree with Honors in CHEMICAL Engineering from Panjab University Chandigarh India and has also done Diploma in Environmental Management. He is certified for Harvard Manage Mentor and specializes in Building High Performance cross functional Task Force as well as Converting Breakeven Projects to Profitable scenario. He can be reached at anilshivani99@gmail.com or Anil.Seth@Fluor.com

To see other works by Anil Seth, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/mr-anil-seth/


About the Company

Fluor Corporation (NYSE: FLR) is a global engineering and construction firm that designs and builds some of the world’s most complex projects. The company creates and delivers innovative solutions for its clients in engineering, procurement, fabrication, construction, maintenance and project management on a global basis. For more than a century, Fluor has served clients in the energy, chemicals, government, industrial, infrastructure, mining and power market sectors. Headquartered in Irving, Texas, Fluor ranks 110 on the FORTUNE 500 list. With more than 40,000 employees worldwide, the company’s revenue for 2013 was $27.4 billion. For more information, visit www.fluor.com



Build up your Future



By Alfonso Bucero

Madrid, Spain



I always enjoy professional Congresses and Seminars as speaker but also as an attendee. When I joined PMI twenty-six years ago, I never thought how my professional career as a project manager would be positively affected by attending to professional Congresses worldwide.

Most of my professional life I worked for multinational companies that requested me to do performance evaluations every year. One of the results from those evaluations was my development plan. I was lucky because one of the things my managers did was give me the freedom of choosing the activities that I needed to do to accomplish my objectives. When I discovered PMI in 1992 a big window was opened for me. I can remember that I asked my manager to go to my first Project Management Congress. At the beginning his response was negative, and also he asked me why I wanted to travel so far away. I prepared my arguments and offered him to prepare a report with a summary of my lessons learned in the Congress.

I achieved my goal and I went to my first PMI Congress. It was the beginning a never end story about learning and developing my professional career. In my particular case I met several professionals at PMI Congresses that were key for my career development. More and more every year I prepared my paper submission to contribute and have the opportunity to come back again and again and again. Now after 25 years of PMI membership and almost 20 years as volunteer in different PMI roles I need to say that joining PMI was key for my career success. One of my lessons learned is that “you need to build up your future”. If you do not do it, nobody will. In my first Congress I met a great professional who gave the opportunity to learn from him, who encouraged me to write articles, with whom I have 20 years of friendship and I coauthored four books (Randall L. Englund).

I would like to share with you some best practices that worked for me well building up my future:

  1. Personal Vision: At the end of every year spend some type thinking and writing your PERSONAL VISION, work on what is your vision personally, professionally, socially. Then you will move through your mission and objectives, finalizing with your action plan.
  2. Chose a mentor: You need to choose a mentor. Think about somebody who you are confident with. Somebody who may orient you in your career, somebody ready to listen to you. He or she will not give you all the solutions but will be a great help in your development.
  3. Use your courage: If you want to develop yourself, you need to try to do things you are not still ready to do. Try to do some activities that will allow you to grow as a person but also as a professional.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Bucero, A. (2019).  Build up your Future, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue III (April). Available online at: https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/pmwj80-Apr2019-Bucero-build-up-your-future.pdf



About the Author

Alfonso Bucero

Madrid, Spain



Alfonso Bucero, MSc, CPS, PMP, PMI-RMP, PfMP, PMI Fellow, is an International Correspondent and Contributing Editor for the PM World Journal in Madrid, Spain. Mr. Bucero is also founder and Managing Partner of BUCERO PM Consulting.  Alfonso was the founder, sponsor and president of the PMI Barcelona Chapter until April 2005, and belongs to PMI’s LIAG (Leadership Institute Advisory Group).  He was the past President of the PMI Madrid Spain Chapter, and then nominated as a PMI EMEA Region 8 Component Mentor. Now he is a member of the PMIEF Engagement Committee. Alfonso has a Computer Science Engineering degree from Universidad Politécnica in Madrid and is studying for his Ph.D. in Project Management. He has 32 years of practical experience and is actively engaged in advancing the PM profession in Spain and throughout Europe. He received the PMI Distinguished Contribution Award on October 9th, 2010, the PMI Fellow Award on October 22nd 2011 and the PMI Eric Jenett Excellence Award on October 28th, 2017.

Mr. Bucero can be contacted at alfonso.bucero@abucero.com.

To see other works by Alfonso Bucero, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alfonso-bucero/



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