Standardized Multi-Dimensional WBS


for Enhanced BIM and Data Analytics

in LPG Facility Projects



By Mahesa Hidayat

Makassar, Indonesia


The escalating consumption of LPG in Indonesia has prompted the country’s National Oil & Gas Company to embark on constructing a new LPG Facility. This paper addresses the imperative to streamline the Front-End Loading (FEL) stage to prevent cost and schedule overruns due to scope creep. The primary objective is to formulate a comprehensive Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for the LPG Facility Construction project, aimed at facilitating accurate cost estimation and scheduling processes for diverse stakeholders. Using the unfolded tesseract theory to analyze stakeholder needs and elucidate the object-oriented WBS, a Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) analysis was conducted. The study concludes that a multi-dimensional WBS, particularly employing OmniClass, is the optimal choice for addressing the complexities of the LPG Facility Project and meeting stakeholder needs within BIM software.

Keywords:    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS), Multi-dimentional WBS, OBS, Scope Change, Asset Manager, Omniclass, ISO 19008:2016, Artificial Intelligence, Econometrics, Data Analysis, Building Information Modeling (BIM), MADM


The role of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in the energy consumption of the Household Sector in Indonesia is significantly vital. Examining the final energy consumption in Indonesia, the total consumption of LPG in the country has consistently increased each year. Between 2012 and 2022, there was a notable 70.4% surge in national LPG consumption.

According to statistical data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), Figure 1 illustrates the upward trajectory of LPG consumption in Indonesia. This rise is partly attributed to governmental initiatives, particularly the conversion program from kerosene to LPG for household fuel. As of 2022, LPG holds a substantial 48.45% share of energy consumption in the household sector, as depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 1 – LPG Consumption in Indonesia[1]

Indonesia’s National Oil & Gas Company has undertaken various measures to bolster national energy resilience and support these governmental endeavors. Among these efforts is the establishment of several LPG Terminals. These initiatives align with the broader goal of enhancing energy security and facilitating the transition toward cleaner and more efficient household energy sources[2].

Establishing multiple LPG terminals by the National Oil & Gas Company is a step towards enhancing infrastructure and distribution networks. These terminals act as crucial hubs, ensuring a steady and reliable supply of LPG across regions. Such infrastructure investments facilitate accessibility and affordability, especially in remote areas, fostering a more inclusive energy landscape across the country.


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How to cite this paper: Hidayat, M. (2024). Standardized Multi-Dimensional WBS for Enhanced BIM and Data Analytics in LPG Facility Projects; PM World Journal, Vol. XIII, Issue IV, April. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/pmwj140-Apr2024-Hidayat-standardized-multi-dimensional-wbs-for-enhanced-bim.pdf

Editors note: This paper was originally prepared during a 6-month long Graduate-Level Competency Development/Capacity Building Program developed by PT Mitrata Citragraha and led by Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo to prepare candidates for AACE CCP or other Certifications.  https://build-project-management-competency.com/our-faqs/ 

About the Author

Mahesa Hidayat

Makassar, Indonesia


Mahesa Hidayat is an engineer at the National Oil Company of Indonesia, possessing more than five years of professional expertise in the oil & gas sectors. Additionally, he has served as an inspector for downstream oil and gas projects and contributed as an engineer on projects dispersed across numerous provinces in Indonesia. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from Brawijaya University (UB). Currently, he is attending a distance learning mentoring course under the tutelage of Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS, GPM-m Senior Technical Advisor at PT Mitrata Citragraha, to attain Certified Cost Professional certification from AACE International.

Mahesa Hidayat resides in Makassar, Indonesia, and his email address is mahesahidayat@gmail.com.

[1] Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia (2022). Handbook of Energy & Economic Statistics of Indonesia
[2] Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia (2019). Dukung Konversi Mitan ke LPG, 4 Terminal LPG Dibangun di Indonesia Timur, retrieved from https://www.esdm.go.id/id/unit-news/directorate-general-of-oil-and-gas/dukung-konversi-mitan-ke-lpg-4-terminal-lpg-dibangun-di-indonesia-timur