Representative examples of operational users


converting project-related outputs to

outcomes and benefits within an

organisational strategic-and-operations framework



By Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon)

Sydney, Australia


In the last issue of this journal, I published an article entitled “An organisational strategic-and-operational framework with provisions for operations users to convert three key types of project outputs into operational outcomes/benefits” (Stretton 2021k). That article developed the following organisational strategic-and-operations model, with the provision for conversions by operations users shown in schematic format.

Figure 1: Three groups of project-related deliverables, operational users and outcome/benefits within an organisational strategic-and-operations management framework

As just indicated, the representation of user conversion from deliverables to outcomes/ benefits in Figure 1 is essentially schematic. This article takes the next step of representing some more specific examples from the project management literature.


The earliest example of a project output to strategic objectives chain I know of is from OGC 2007, Figure 7.3, as is represented in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Example of a project output to strategic objectives chain, adapted from OGC 2007, Fig. 7.3                                                                    

This chain has several attributes which warrant further discussion.

Distinguishing between outcomes and benefits

Some writers use one or other of the descriptors outcomes and benefits in a more or less interchangeable manner. Indeed, some actually combine the two. For example, in the abstract of their paper, Zwikael & Smyrk 2009 use the descriptor outcomes (benefits). In effect, they are discussing “beneficial outcomes”. However, others see the distinction as important, as now discussed.

However, as is indicated in Figure 2, OGC 2007 quite specifically distinguishes between the two. Indeed, it has more to say about such differences than any other source I know of, as is represented in its Table 7.1, as indicated in the following figure.


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How to cite this paper: Stretton, A. (2021). Representative examples of operational users converting project-related outputs to outcomes and benefits within an organisational strategic-and-operations framework; PM World Journal, Volume X, Issue IX, September. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/pmwj109-Sep2021-Stretton-Representative-examples-of-users-converting-outputs-to-outcomes-and-benefits.pdf

About the Author

Alan Stretton, PhD     

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)


Alan Stretton is one of the pioneers of modern project management.  He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA.  In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects.  He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France).  Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992.  He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996.  He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management.  He has published over 230 professional articles and papers.  Alan can be contacted at alanailene@bigpond.com.au.

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.