Examining the possible solutions to construction delays

in the Somaliland construction industry



By Adebayo Adeboye Fashina1*, Funke Folasade Fakunle2, Mustafe Abdillahi Omar3, and Jama Adam Salah4

1Reaserch, Evidence and Development Department, AdeFolasade Management Systems Consults, Lagos-Nigeria.
2Compliance and Auditing Department, AdeFolasade Management Systems Consults, Lagos-Nigeria.
3Independent Researcher, Hargeisa, Somaliland.
4Technical and Project Management Department, Amtel Telecom, Puntland, Somalia.

*Corresponding author: Adebayo Adeboye Fashina. adebayofashina@gmail.com




Construction sector is one of the sectors that has contributed to the rapid development and economic growth of Somaliland in the last decade. However, this sector is overwhelmed with delays in construction projects and its aftermaths in recent times. In light of this, the aim of this research study is to develop solutions to delay-related issues and measures to mitigate its effects in projects in the Somaliland construction industry. Prior to the design of questionnaire, the 12 mitigating measures of delays in global construction projects were identified through a systematic review of relevant literature. Questionnaire survey was conducted with 51 stakeholders from the different construction companies that have been involved in construction projects in Somaliland. This was achieved based on simple random sampling approach. Feedback from the stakeholders were analyzed using RII and mean values obtained from SPSS statistics software for the purpose of ranking. The results from data analysis identified the most significant mitigating measures or solutions to construction delay issues as follows: scheduling contractors in advance; extensive planning and attention to detail: plan, review plan and continuously update plan and; applying value-engineering as a management tool for project execution. The implications of these findings are significant to construction stakeholders in terms of minimizing construction delays for the economic growth of Somaliland construction industry. Future researchers that might want to carry out similar studies can also validate their findings using the outcome of the current study. The key construction stakeholders are therefore recommended to take advantage of these possible solutions to project delay as strategies or proactive measures to mitigate the effects of delay when executing future construction projects in Somaliland and elsewhere.

Keywords:    Construction Delay, Construction Projects, Mitigating Measures of Construction Delays, Somaliland Construction Industry

  1. Introduction

Over the years, the studies on mitigating construction delay have proven to be a vital part of the success stories recorded in the construction sectors across the globe [1]. This is because these studies provide better understand on how to minimize delays in construction and thus reducing the number of housing and road delay in different countries [2]–[7]. Consequently, project owners often try as much as possible to avoid delay in construction because the financial implication of such delay affects them [8], [9]. Yet, the degree to which the owner can regain the cost incurred as a result of delay from the Contractor is dependent on the terms in the construction contract [10], [11]. Likewise, the terms and conditions of the construction contract determines the extent to which the owner can reduce the risk of a project delay occurring [12]–[14]. This has stimulated the construction research community to explore numerous mitigation approaches over the past two decades [1], [15]–[20]. Within this context, mitigation or eradication of delays in construction projects represents a promising approach that can be used to minimize or reduce the negative factors that can threaten completion of a construction project within the stipulated time, budget and quality [3], [15]. Many works have been in this area of study and different researchers proffered a cope of mitigation measures according to the country of study [1], [2], [19], [3]–[7], [15], [16], [18]. However, most researchers believe that implementing suitable planning activities during the initiation and design phases of a construction project can be a vital mitigating measure that can avoid delay during the construction phase of such project [21].

In the study by Kumaraswamy [15] in 1997, on the conflicts, claims and disputes in construction projects, the author identified that collaborative working in construction as a major way to avoid project delay [15]. Odeh and Battaineh [21] classified the enforcement of liquidated damages and offering of incentives for early completion as major ways of avoiding construction delays [21]. In the same year, Aibinu and Jagboro [22] also ascertained that acceleration of site activities and contingency allowances are robust measures that can easily improve the conditions of construction projects [22]. In addition, Nguyen [16] conducted a related survey on the measures that can reduce delay in large construction projects in Vietnam. The author in his findings suggested five vital mitigation measure that include; availability of sufficient resources, multidisciplinary or competent project team, competent project managers, accurate first cost estimates and accurate initial time estimates [16].

Koushki et al. [17], also explored the ways of minimizing time delay and cost overrun in construction projects in Kuwait and pinpointed three vital measures [17]. These include adequate and readily accessible financial resources from start to finish of the project, selection of highly skilled consultant and reliable and capable contractors to implement the project [17]. Assaf and Al-Hejji [23] indicated that a complete and proper design at the right time is a significant approach to reduce the critical causes of delay in large construction projects [23]. In a more detailed work by Majid [18], the author identified 11 major measures that can drastically reduce delay in construction. These include; frequent progress meeting; use up-to-date technology utilization; use proper and modern construction equipment; use appropriate construction methods; effective strategic planning, proper material procurement; accurate initial cost estimates; clear information and communication channels; frequent coordination between the parties involved; proper emphasis on past experience; and proper project planning and scheduling [18]. Le-Hoai et al. [24] also proposed site management and supervision alongside compressing construction durations as two important measures that should be considered in a construction project to avoid any form of delay [24].

In a more recent work by Khoiry et al. [19], the authors identified from prior work 143 methods of minimizing delays with a focus on issues associated with the construction sector in various countries [19]. The authors further attempted to classify the 27 most common measures identified from literature into four categories that include management, interpersonal, technical and technology [19]. Following the work by Khoiry et al. [19], some mitigation measures were identified by Sohu et al. [1] for 10 critical delay causes determined based on interview sessions with construction experts. The authors suggested several mitigation measures for each critical delay cause [1]. As the most critical delay cause specified by experts, the mitigation measure for “poor site management” include the effective handling of unforeseen situations at   the site by the contractor, appropriate monitoring of construction activities, developing proper working collaboration among site personnel and adequate training programs for personnel working on site [1]. The authors also presented the selection of contractors with experience or history of quality construction works as the controlling measures for inadequate contractor experience as the second critical cause of construction delay [1]. Other measures of mitigating construction delay identified from the literature are presented in Table 1.


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How to cite this paper:  Fashina, A. A., Fakunle, F. F., Omar, M. A., & Salah, J. A., (2020). Examining the possible solutions to construction delays in the Somaliland construction industry; PM World Journal, Vol. IX, Issue XII, December.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/pmwj100-Dec2020-Fashina-Fakunle-Omar-Salah-Solutions-to-construction-delays.pdf



About the Authors

Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina

Lagos, Nigeria


Dr. Adebayo Adeboye Fashina is a young certified management consultant (CMC), professional researcher, educator and education management consultant with over nine years of significant international experience working on STEM education, EOMS/Project management research and teaching, science research and teaching, and capacity building at various levels of education across Africa.

Dr. Adebayo hold a Bachelor’s degree in Physics/Electronics, MSc. in Theoretical Physics and Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Physics. He currently works with AdeFolasade Management Systems Consults, Lagos-Nigeria as the Interim Director of Research, Evidence and Development. Prior to his present job, he worked as a Researcher/GTA/Lecturer-B at AUST before joining Kampala International University, Uganda as a Senior Lecturer. He later worked as an Associate Professor of Applied Physics at William V. S. Tubman University, Liberia and as an Associate Professor of Physics and Engineering Management at Gollis University, Hargeisa. He was nominated for the 2016 Sustainable Energy Africa Awards and shortlisted as one of the three finalists in the ”Emerging Leaders” award category at the 2016 Nigeria Energy Forum.

Dr. Adebayo has conducted training workshops, seminars and given speeches/talks/presentations at local and international conferences. He has published more than 30 articles in reputed journals and is an active reviewer of many international journals. He is a motivated, energetic and focused individual with strengths in innovative teaching approaches, interdisciplinary research, data analysis, teacher training and team management. His research interest includes sustainable living, project management, RE policy and management, education organization management system (EOMS), educational planning, photonic nanostructures of materials etc. He is a fellow of African Scientific Institute, USA and the Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria.

Dr. Adebayo can be contacted on adebayofashina@gmail.com or afashina@gollisuniversity.org

Funke Folasade Fakunle

Lagos Nigeria


 Funke Folasade Fakunle is a young female NEBOSH international diploma qualified professional with 10 years of significant QHSE experience in QHSE management, training and consultancy. Being passionate about Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and management system in the workplace, she has acquired certifications in Process Safety: Hazard Operability study (HAZOP), Lean six sigma (Green Belt Holder), ISO 9001 Lead Auditor, OHSAS 18001 Lead Auditor, AOFAQ Level 3 Award in Education & Training, NEBOSH International Diploma in Occupational Safety and Health, NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Safety and Health, Project Management, Rigging Safety and Inspection etc.

Funke received a B.Sc. degree in Mathematics from the University of Uyo, Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria in 2008. Over the past 10 years, she has gained significant QHSE experience in various industries.  These include construction, oil & gas, logistics and transportation, telecommunication, manufacturing, banking and security sectors. She is a register Professional/Associated Member of the International Register of Certificated Auditors (IRCA), International Institute of Risk and Safety Management (IIRSM), and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE).

As an QHSE Consultant/Trainer at present, she conducts QHSE training, consulting and auditing/evaluation exercises that help improve the QHSE Management Systems of various organizations. This allows her to adequately provide her clients with the necessary advisory services that include but not limited to HSE employee orientation training, development, planning and implementation of QHSE Management Systems, QHSE auditing, Environmental Management System, process improvement and so on.

Funke can be contacted on funkefolasade7@gmail.com 

Mustafe Abdillahi Omar

Hargeisa, Somaliland


Mustafe Abdillahi Omar is a member of Dr. Adebayo’s research group at Gollis University and an Assistant Lecturer in the department of management science and economics at same University. Mustafe hold a B.Sc. degree in Accounting & Finance and Master of Arts in Project Management from Gollis University, Hargeisa, Somaliland. His research interests evolve around the project and engineering management, engineering economics, construction management etc.

Mustafe can be contacted on asowe.160@gmail.com

Jama Adam Salah

Puntland, Somalia


Jama Adam Salah is a young project & power system engineer, researcher and educator with over 3 years of significant experience working on telecommunication projects, data centers, base stations, renewable energy technology projects and so on. He holds a bachelor degree in Telecommunication Engineering with the honors from Gollis University, Somaliland, a Postgraduate Diploma in Education Management and Higher Teaching from Islamic University, Uganda (IUIU), Kampala, Uganda and a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering (Power and Energy option) from Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda.

Prior to his current job with Amtel Telecom, Puntland, Somalia, as a Power Systems Engineer, Jama worked as a Part-time lecturer at Gollis University, University of Hargeisa and others before joining Renewable Energy Hub Co, as a project engineer and manager. He has since been involved in Mega project across East Africa particular, Somalia. He is proficient in project proposal writing, project cost analysis training, and the use of Microsoft Office packages such as MS Word, MS Excel, and MS Power point.

His research interest includes the design and simulation of RET projects, project management practices in telecommunication and construction industries etc.

Jama can be contacted on engr.jama@gmail.com