Constraint Factors to Sustainable Building


Projects Delivery in Enugu State, Nigeria



By Anthony N. Ezemerihe1, Kevin C. Okolie2, and Dominic A. Obodoh2

1Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
2Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria



The study identified the constraint factors to sustainable building projects delivery in Enugu State with a view to mitigate these factors in order to deliver successful sustainable building in the state. Nine local government areas (three each from the three senatorial zones of the state) were sampled based on urbanization and population of inhabitants in the area. A total of four hundred (400) questionnaires were distributed to stakeholders in the built environment while three hundred and forty-four (344) representing 86.0% of the respondents were returned and used for the analysis. The data was analyzed using common size percentage analysis, mean score using five-point likert rating scale, severity index/ranking, regression and correlation analysis. The results show that incentive factors ranked first with grand mean score of 4.05 and severity index of 81.0% followed by economic factors and project factors. The least in ranking was technical and technological factors. The work concluded that sustainable building would offer a holistic approach by integrating sustainability at the design, execution and whole life assessment maintenance in order to achieve environmental safety and cost-effective buildings over their life cycle. The study recommends that capacity building through education, training, skill and bridging knowledge gap of project participants; product innovation towards sustainable materials; community participation at the design/construction stages would mitigate the constraint factors to achieve sustainable building projects delivery in Enugu State.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Constraint factors, Sustainable design and execution.


Construction activities deplete our natural resources which are major threat to our ecological environment. Sustainable building was sought because of the discomfort like, destroying our natural ecosystem, air, land and water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, heating up of the ozone layer, erosion, flooding and associated hazards. Sustainable building design and subsequent construction seeks to reduce negative impact on the environment, improve the health and comfort of building occupants which improves building performance. Construction is one of the largest industries in both developing and developed countries in terms of investment, employment and contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of any Nation (Spence and Mulligan, 1995 cited in Ametepy, Ansah and Gyadu-Asiedu, 2020). The construction industry accounts directly and indirectly for nearly forty percent (40%) of material flow entering the world economy (Clement, Cheng and Hong, 2018); and in developing countries for around fifty percent (50%) of the total energy consumption ( Ametepy et al., 2020; Ibrahim and Price, 2005).

Aluko (2011) stated that, in Nigeria, many laws and regulations were enunciated at Federal, State and Local government levels for proper planning of the environment and building design architecture without integration of sustainability concepts. Most of the building projects are not sustainable which portends danger to the environment by degrading the natural design architecture. Although the principal indicators for sustainable development are not integrated at the planning stage for most building projects, their execution also lack proper monitoring by the policy makers (Udegbunam, Agbazue, and Ngang, 2017). These led to poor implementation during construction which drastically affects our living environment. For a building development project to be sustainable, it must have the ability to be sustained for a definite period without damaging the environment, or without depleting a resource (Hornby, Gatenby and Wakefield, 2000).

Building sustainability is fundamentally a process of best practices that leads to sustainable outcomes (Muldavin, 2010). Planning process is typically not conducted very well due to its complexity and extra costs that are always associated with it (Mansur, Chewan Putra, and Mohammed, 2003). The planning process does not encourage sustainability matter clearly and limited interactions between various disciplines have hindered sustainable building projects from reaching the expected achievement. There are minimal inputs from Operation and maintenance groups, construction managers and trade contractors or outside stakeholders during the design stage and the planning process which made sustainability principles hard to be incorporated in building projects (Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), 2003).


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How to cite this work: Ezemerihe, A. N., Okolie, K. C., Obodoh, D. A. (2024). Constraint Factors to Sustainable Building Projects Delivery in Enugu State, Nigeria; PM World Journal, Vol. XIII, Issue II, February. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/pmwj138-Feb2024-Ezemerihe-et-al-Constraint-Factors-to-Sustainable-Building-Projects-Delivery-in-Enugu-State.pdf


About the Authors

Anthony Nnamdi Ezemerihe

Enugu, Nigeria


Ezemerihe, Anthony Nnamdi holds a bachelor’s degree in Building from Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Nigeria, Higher National Diploma in Building Technology and Quantity Surveying from Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, Nigeria. Postgraduate Diploma (PGD) and Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Banking and Finance from Anambra State University of Technology (ASUTECH) Enugu. A master of Science (M.Sc) degree in Construction Management from Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) Awka, Nigeria and he is presently rounding up his Doctorate degree in Construction Management at NAU, Awka. He is a registered Builder and Corporate member Nigerian Institute of Building (MNIOB), Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors, Nigerian Institute of Management (MNIM), Nigerian Environmental Society (MNES) and passed with overall result A in Public Service Examination (PSE) from the Administrative Staff college of Nigeria (ASCON). He also obtained Doctor of philosophy (Critical and Creative Thinking) Ph.D. (CACT) (Honouris Causa) from Montclair State University, Upper Montclair New Jersey, United States of America (USA). Ezemerihe Anthony Nnamdi can be contacted at ecatonia2008@yahoo.com.


Prof. Kevin Chuks Okolie

Anambra State, Nigeria


 Prof. Kevin Chuks Okolie holds a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Construction Management from Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth South Africa. His research interest lies in the development of Building Performance Evaluation Methodology, Health and Safety Management and Built Asset Management Systems. His published papers and articles on Construction and Facilities Management have appeared in many international conferences and peer reviewed journals. Prof Okolie can be contacted at kc.okolie@unizik.edu.ng


Dr Dominic Anosike Obodoh

Anambra State, Nigeria


 Dr Dominic Anosike Obodoh is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria. He holds PhD in Project Management Technology, M.Eng  Civil Engineering (Structural Engineering), M.Sc Construction Management and B.Sc Building. He is a Registered Builder and a Project Management Consultant. Dr D.A. Obodoh has published many articles in reputable journals in and outside Nigeria. He has supervised many students’ projects in both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He hails from Eke in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria and is happily married with children. Dr. Obodoh can be contacted at da.obodoh@unizik.edu.ng