Adequate housing provision and challenges


of enforcement of minimum standards

and setbacks in Oyo community



By Michael O. Joeli and Christian O. Ifedioraii

i Department of Architecture
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo

ii Department of Estate Management
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro



The focus of the 21st century-built environment professionals is not just about building houses, rather conscious effort geared towards adequate housing provision and enforcing minimum standards and setbacks with the aim to achieve a sustainable environment. This study assessed adequate housing provision and the challenges of enforcing minimum standards/setbacks in Oyo community. To achieve this, various literatures in form of published journals and books shall be consulted. Visits to various sites were done were pictures of building projects that are below the minimum or approved standard were seen and captured. The study identified practical cases of selected houses which do not conform to the minimum standard, identified the major reasons why they do not meet minimum standards and the factors affecting enforcement and compliance, determined the impact of the identified factors and proffered solution to the identified challenges. The study further encouraged collaborative efforts aimed at effectively tacking further challenges and as encouraged efforts aimed at providing quality housing devoid of deviation from minimum standards.

Keywords: Adequate housing, Enforcement, Housing, Minimum standards and Setback.

1.0 Introduction

Housing plays an important role in countries’ economies, and because of this importance, the housing sector makes up a prominent part of the total economic activity of most countries. The increase in population has contributed to the inability of many families to provide their own dwellings, while others settle for the next available alternative which most times is below standard. There is a need on the part of governments to play a significant role in solving these housing challenges so as to ensure sustainability and economic stability.

According to UNHABITAT, (2014), adequate housing was recognized as part of the right to an adequate standard of living in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Adequate housing is expected to meet certain conditions (standards) that are in line with the expected or approved standard i.e. adequate housing must provide more than four walls and a roof according to UN HABITAT (2014). They further stated that a number of conditions must be met before particular forms of shelter can be considered to constitute “adequate housing.”  In defining what must be part of the conditions that must be met in order to confirm adequacy of an accommodation it is expected that accommodation available have safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, energy for cooking, heating, lighting, food storage or refuse disposal for the occupant. It is expected to be habitable thus, guarantee physical safety or provide adequate space, as well as protection against the cold, damp, heat, rain, wind, other threats to health and structural hazards. More so, as much as possible not or if located in polluted or dangerous areas.

The question is, are the available accommodation adequate based on the above parameters? If not, has there been effort aimed at enforcing those standards? Hence it a recurring issue seeing development within Ajegunle and Awe area of Oyo which do not comply with minimum standards – (not adequate by way of description), a case which appears to be total deviation from the set down standards. This situation is becoming worrisome thus suggesting that enforcement of the minimum standards is proving difficult if not impossible…


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How to cite this paper: Joel, M. O. and Ifediora, C. O. (2024). Adequate housing provision and challenges of enforcement of minimum standards and setbacks in Oyo community; PM World Journal, Vol. XIII, Issue III, March. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/pmwj139-Mar2024-Joel-Ifediora-Adequate-housing-provision-and-challenges-of-enforcement.pdf

About the Authors

Michael Oluwafemi Joel

Oyo State, Nigeria


 Michael Oluwafemi Joel is a lecturer in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.  He holds a B.sc in Geography and M.sc in Urban and Regional Planning. He is currently a member of the Faculty Publication and Seminar Committee and also the Students’ Industrial Work Experience (SIWES) Coordinator for the department.  He has served as a Faculty Representative to other Faculties and also as the 400 level advisor (2022/23)

Michael Joel can be contacted at mo.joel@acu.edu.ng


Christian Osita Ifediora, PhD

Anambra State, Nigeria


Christian Osita Ifediora, ND, BSc, MSc, PhD ANIVS, RSV, holds a National Diploma in Estate Management – Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, B.Sc. (Estate Management), M.Sc. Estate Management (Project Management) and PhD in Estate Management from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State. Lecturer in the Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences Delta State University of Science and Technology Ozoro. Former lecturer; Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. A former Assistant Lecturer, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, Emene Enugu.

He has served in Paul University Awka Anambra State as a technical Officer (Estate). He is an Associate member of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (ANIVS), Registered Estate Estate Surveyor and Valuer (RSV). Dr Ifediora has served as an acting Head of Department, Estate Management, Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, the Departments SIWES coordinator, a member of committee for proposed Post Graduate (Master’s Degree) of the department. Academically, he has published over 25 journals both local and internal, reviewed over 15 journal articles for several international journals including Elsevier and currently an editor in International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation and International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science attended many academic (learned conference) and professional conferences, MCPD, both at state level and national level as well as online. He has presented papers at the NIESV conference.

Dr. Ifediora is author of Application of GIS in real estate and Economics of Real estate development and investment. Co-authored Fundamental themes in natural and built environment: Real estate perspective and Fundamentals of Real estate studio and field practice.