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Through the knowledge lens

KM adventures in project-land

 

Advances in Project Management Series

SERIES ARTICLE

By Judy Payne, Eileen J. Roden, Steve Simister

United Kingdom

 


 

Knowledge management (KM) is a holistic, cross-functional approach focused on ways organisations create and use knowledge to improve outcomes (Association for Project Management 2019; BSI 2018). KM has been around as a discipline and organisational practice since the early 1990s but is still a relatively new concept in project environments. Although KM is widely practised in project work, managers don’t always recognise the knowledge aspects of their work and tend to treat KM as a series of discrete activities rather than as a way of making project work produce better outcomes in different contexts. What is labelled ‘KM’ is often not KM at all – and the real KM is hidden.

Does this matter? We think it does. KM adds value and can contribute significantly to project, programme and portfolio success – and project management is missing out on it. KM experience and thinking from beyond the project management world can change this, but only if managers recognise the knowledge and KM aspects of their work.

The ideas in this article are based on a new book Managing knowledge in project environments (Payne, Roden and Simister, 2019), which looks at project work through a knowledge lens and explores how knowledge contributes to success. The book argues that actively considering and managing the knowledge aspects of project work leads to better organisational outcomes – and provides a framework for understanding and improving KM in different organisational contexts. The article briefly introduces the framework of KM principles, KM context and KM scope; then applies the knowledge lens to take a deeper look at the interplay between three of the context factors: strategic KM purpose, project delivery method and project type.

  1. KM principles, the KM context and KM scope

1.1     KM principles

Seven KM principles capture the why of managing knowledge: the fundamentals of KM that apply to KM the world over – not just to KM in project environments. The principles and underlying fundamentals are summarised in Table 1 and covered in more detail in Managing knowledge in project environments (Payne, Roden and Simister, 2019).

More…

 

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.

How to cite this paper: Payne, J.; Roden, E.J.; Simister, S. (2019). Through the knowledge lens: KM adventures in project-land, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IX, October. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Payne-Roden-Simister-through-the-knowledge-lens.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr Judy Payne

United Kingdom

 

 

 

Dr Judy Payne works as an independent consultant, practitioner, reluctant academic and educator specialising in knowledge management, collaborative working and learning. Her work is positioned firmly on the boundaries between academia and practice. Not the most comfortable place to be, but there’s such a huge gap between the two that there’s a lot of bridging to be done. Judy chairs the BSI Knowledge Management Standards Committee and is a member of the ISO working group that developed the Knowledge Management standard published in 2018. She co-founded and co-chairs the APM Knowledge SIG. She contributed new knowledge management sections to APM Bok7, the sixth edition of the Project Management Institute’s PMBOK® Guide and the Axelos P3O® Manual – and is the author of articles published in journals including KM Review, Organisations and People, Strategic HR Review, Assets, Project, and HR Magazine. With Vanessa Randle, Judy also produces short whiteboard animation videos including a series of ‘Courageous Conversations’ published by APM.

 


Eileen J Roden

United Kingdom

 

 

 

Eileen Roden is an experienced PMO and PPM Consultant.  She works with individuals and organisations, often at Executive level, to improve their delivery capability.  She works across a wide range of industry sectors including transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, defence, utilities and the public sector.  As Lead Author of P3O® Best Management Practice, Eileen is a recognised expert in the implementation and development of PMOs and influencer in the development of the PMO profession.  Her work includes the establishment of the leading PMO training organisation – PMO Learning, building on the success of the sister companies of PMO Flashmob and the PMO Conference. Her passion for all things PMO is underpinned by 17 years practitioner experience, 14 years consultancy and training experience along with a range of academic and professional qualifications.

 

 


Dr Steve Simister

United Kingdom

 

 

 

Dr Steve Simister is a consultant and university lecturer in project, programme and portfolio management. His specialism is in assisting clients to scope and define project requirements within a strategic business need framework.  He has experience of most business sectors and has been involved in all stages of project lifecycles.

Steve is deputy chair of MS2 the BSI committee for project management.  He has contributed to various ISO standards on project management include g ISO:21500.

He is a Chartered Project Professional with APM and co-founded the APM Knowledge SIG.

 

 

Beyond the mind of the maker

Adventures in knowledge making

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School

United Kingdom

 


 

Knowledge management is a relatively new addition to the project management bodies of knowledge but nonetheless is increasingly recognised as an area that is crucial for the success of projects, programmes and portfolios. The big challenge for many project managers is to figure out what knowledge management is, what it entails and what it can do for you.

Peter Drucker famously proclaimed that a manager is responsible for the application and performance of knowledge. However, in practice, knowledge is highly contextual and innately dynamic. Knowledge is deeply entwined with meaning, understanding and interpretation, making it difficult to grasp, let alone manage. As a result, some scholars even suggest that there is a fundamental incongruity and mismatch between the concepts of knowledge and management.

For one thing, knowledge is not manageable in the same way as a tangible resource. The intellectual capital of an organisation resides in the individuals and the communities that make up the different facets of the organisation. Management of the knowledge embedded within people requires engagement, understanding and skills related to the management of and interaction with people and their perceptions. It also necessitates intimate and ongoing engagement with the individuals and their communities in order to share, shape and co-develop the knowledge.

So, why manage knowledge?

Knowledge is essential to making informed decisions. Moreover, innovation and increased productivity both arise through the creation and application of knowledge-based assets.

Yet, Alvesson & Kärreman (2001; p. 995) assert that ‘knowledge is an ambiguous, unspecific and dynamic phenomena, intrinsically related to meaning, understanding and process, and therefore difficult to manage. There is thus a contradiction between knowledge and management.’

Hislop (2009; p. 59) positions knowledge management as a deliberate effort to manage the knowledge of an organization’s workforce. In more recent update, Hislop and colleagues (2019) further encourage a practice-based perspective, which views knowledge as a process:

The practice-based perspective considers knowledge as embodied in human beings and therefore focuses on facilitating interpersonal knowledge-sharing and processes. This requires an organizational approach and involves establishing a culture in which knowledge is shared and where managers evaluate their employees on their contribution to knowledge management.’ (Hislop et al., 2019; p. 51).

Knowledge can be embedded in tangible assets such as finished goods, completed project outputs and results, machinery and manuals. However, Hislop calls attention to the need to engage with knowledge embedded within the people that make up the organisation, thereby presenting an enormous challenge for traditionally structured organisations.

Managing knowledge, or intellectual capital, that resides in the individual employees poses significant challenges to managers. Not least, the problem of asymmetric information, where managers have significantly less knowledge than the experts or highly skilled knowledge workers that they oversee (Roberts, 2015; p. 51-2). Adler’s solution is to advocate community forms of organisation as an alternative to knowledge-based organisations (Adler, 2001).

Defillippi et al. (2006) note that knowledge work is neither created nor used in a social vacuum. Participants in knowledge work deal with a complex web of relationships among people and activities. Typically, there is a tendency to focus on a single type of participant and their interactions and processes. However, Defillippi et al. contend that there is a need to explain how each of the participants in knowledge work influences and is in turn influenced by the other participants. To gain a fuller picture of the different types of knowledge participants and their interactions they construct the knowledge diamond (p. 19) with four focal groups of participants (summarised and paraphrased below, after pp. 17-18):

More…

 

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family.  Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM.  Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. 

How to cite this paper: Dalcher, D. (2019). Beyond the mind of the maker: Adventures in knowledge making, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue IX, October.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/pmwj86-Oct2019-Dalcher-beyond-the-mind-of-the-maker.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Darren Dalcher, PhD

Author, Professor, Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School, UK

 

 

Darren Dalcher, Ph.D., HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SMIEEE, SFHEA is Professor in Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK.  He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 200 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, a leading international software engineering journal. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Routledge and of the companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.  Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, A Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the British Academy of Management. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He sits on numerous senior research and professional boards, including The PMI Academic Member Advisory Group, the APM Research Advisory Group, the CMI Academic Council and the APM Group Ethics and Standards Governance Board.  He is the Academic Advisor and Consulting Editor for the next APM Body of Knowledge. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He is the academic advisor and consulting editor for the forthcoming edition of the APM Body of Knowledge. He can be contacted at d.dalcher@lancaster.ac.uk.

To view other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.

 

 

A strategic approach to product stewardship

 

Advances in Project Management Series

SERIES ARTICLE

By Dr Helen Lewis

Sydney, Australia

 


 

Introduction

Product stewardship is no longer a discretionary activity confined to businesses that want to ‘do the right thing’. There is growing government and consumer interest in the social and environmental impacts of products, from their supply chain through to end of life. This represents both a risk and an opportunity for businesses that make, sell or recover products.

Most product stewardship programs are a reaction to regulations or pressure from external groups. Responsiveness to stakeholder expectations on issues such as worker safety, hazardous substances and recycling can be beneficial, for example by improving a company’s reputation. A more proactive and strategic approach is to look for opportunities that create ‘shared value’: that simultaneously achieve social and environmental objectives while building long-term competitiveness.[i]

This article presents a strategic, shared value approach to product stewardship. It can be used by companies to reduce the life cycle impacts of their products while building business value, for example by reducing costs, improving access to raw materials or building customer loyalty.

Drivers for product stewardship

While product stewardship is often driven by stakeholder perceptions or expectations about a specific issue in the product life cycle, a more strategic approach also considers the available scientific evidence and how stakeholder concerns interact with business priorities. As Porter and Kramer argue, stakeholder views are important, but:

…these groups can never understand a corporation’s capabilities, competitive positioning, or the trade-offs it must make. Nor does the vehemence of a stakeholder group necessarily signify the importance of an issue—either to the company or to the world.[ii]

In practice most companies are driven to act by a combination of factors, including stakeholder expectations, evidence of product impacts and business goals and priorities. A systematic approach to product stewardship involves careful evaluation of all three drivers to guide decision making within firms (Error! Reference source not found.).

Figure 1: Three steps towards a product stewardship strategy

The following section considers each one of the three drivers for product stewardship individually: stakeholders, product research, and business priorities.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.

How to cite this paper: Lewis, H. (2019). A Strategic Approach to Product Stewardship, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VII, August. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/pmwj84-Aug2019-Lewis-a-strategic-approach-to-product-stewardship.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr Helen Lewis

Principal, Helen Lewis Research
Sydney, Australia

 

 

 

Dr Helen Lewis runs her own consulting business, providing research and strategic advice to a range of industry and government clients on product stewardship and packaging. She is an Adjunct Professor with the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney and a consultant to the Australian Packaging Covenant Organisation (APCO). IN 2017 Helen co-founded the Product Stewardship Cluster to promote knowledge sharing and collaboration between product stewardship organisations.

Helen has written widely on product stewardship and corporate social responsibility including several books. She published Product stewardship in action in 2016 and is a co-author of Packaging for sustainability (2012) and Design + Environment (2001). She has a PhD in product stewardship and is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Packaging.

 

[i] Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2011). The big idea: Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2011/01/the-big-idea-creating-shared-value

[ii] Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2006, December). Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, pp. 1-16 (p. 8).

 

Taking responsibility for our actions

The return of stewardship

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School

United Kingdom

 


 

Do our actions matter? Can we, or the actions that we take, make a difference beyond our own sphere and influence? Should we therefore consider the global impact of our intentions?

We are often far too occupied with our own interests, preferences, priorities, issues, concerns and tribulations to observe the wider implications and impacts beyond our immediate context. Yet, it increasingly appears that our private little arrangements and engagements can still make a difference to the wider world beyond our immediate and obvious concerns. This article aims to encourage a more responsible and considerate mindset.

Love unchained

Love padlocks, or lovelocks, are padlocks attached to a bridge, fence, gate, post or monument by couples to symbolise and attest their everlasting love. Couples typically inscribe their names or initials onto the lock before affixing it to a public monument or gateway and throwing away the key into a river or waterway to symbolise the unbreakable bond that has been sealed through such action.

For the individuals involved lovelocks are a harmless phenomenon demonstrating an aspiration for a life-long, unbreakable commitment to their partnership. Indeed, one could argue that lovelocks are significantly less obtrusive than carving, daubing or plastering the names onto a bridge, monument, ancient wall, prehistoric ruin, subterranean cave or a natural beauty spot.

Lovelocks appear to have proliferated in many countries and regions since the early 2000s, particularly adorning bridges in the centre of main cities. In Rome, the attaching of lovelocks to the Ponte Milvio bridge was documented in a popular book, I Want You by Federico Moccia published in 2006 and further immortalised when it was adapted into a film in 2007.

Nonetheless, many people associate lovelocks with the Pont des Arts bridge in the centre of Paris. Pont des Arts, also known as Passerelle des Arts, is a popular pedestrian bridge which crosses the River Seine, connecting the Institut de France to the central square of the Palais Du Louvre. It was the first iron bridge built in France, which opened in 1804 as a toll footbridge. In 1991, UNESCO listed the entire Parisian riverfront between the Eiffel Tower and the Ile Saint Louis, including the Pont des Arts, as a World Heritage Site. Since 2008 lovelocks have been appearing on the Pont des Arts bridge. By 2012, the number of locks covering the bridge had become overwhelming with locks being placed upon other locks. In February 2014, Le Monde estimated that there were over 700,000 locks on the bridge. With little free space remaining on the bridge, lovelocks have since spread to at least 11 other Seine bridges, the footbridges on the Canal St Martin, and more recently, to fences and posts in parks and to public monuments all over the city, including the site of the Eiffel Tower.

So, does a personal gesture and intimate bond sealed between two lovers by affixing a lovelock to the side of a bridge impact others?

Well, so it would appear as many little gestures can add up to significant unintended consequences. As a result of the continuous addition of individual locks, the historic bridge at Pont des Arts historic started experiencing new problems. The city of Paris would later remove 1 million locks attached to the Pont des Arts, with a total weight in excess of 45 tonnes. In May 2014 the Paris Mayoress, Anne Hidalgo concerned about the safety of the historic bridge and the wider impact on the city had tasked her First Deputy Mayor with finding alternatives to lovelocks in Paris. A month later, in June 2014, the parapet on the bridge collapsed under the combined weight of the lovelocks (BBC, 2014). Under the added weight, one side of the railing simply crumpled into the water. The railing was replaced and notices were left requesting that people stop the lovelock habit. Still, the love tokens started re-appearing, ultimately forcing the city to replace the railings with protective glass panels in search of an alternative material to which lovelocks could not be attached.

The original bridge had featured in many films and TV shows and had been enjoyed by millions of tourists and locals over the years. It had survived aerial bombardments during the first and second world wars as well as multiple collisions with boats (although it had been replaced after a barge crashed into it in 1977); however, over one million individual acts of demonstrative love overwhelmed the structure and its built-in safety margins and tolerances, causing the side to collapse.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family.  Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM.  Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. 

How to cite this paper: Dalcher, D. (2019). Taking responsibility for our actions: The return of stewardship, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue VII, August. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/pmwj84-Aug2019-Dalcher-taking-responsibility-for-our-actions.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Darren Dalcher, PhD

Author, Professor, Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School, UK

 

 

Darren Dalcher, Ph.D., HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SMIEEE, SFHEA is Professor in Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK.  He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 200 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, a leading international software engineering journal. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Routledge and of the companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.  Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, A Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the British Academy of Management. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He sits on numerous senior research and professional boards, including The PMI Academic Member Advisory Group, the APM Research Advisory Group, the CMI Academic Council and the APM Group Ethics and Standards Governance Board.  He is the Academic Advisor and Consulting Editor for the next APM Body of Knowledge. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He is the academic advisor and consulting editor for the forthcoming edition of the APM Body of Knowledge. He can be contacted at d.dalcher@lancaster.ac.uk.

To view other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.

 

 

How to herd cats: the art of hacker paradigm leadership

 

Advances in Project Management Series

SERIES ARTICLE

By Tim Rayner

UTS Business School

Sydney, NSW, Australia

 


                                                     

ABSTRACT

This article defines six core elements of hacker paradigm leadership – a style of leadership required in agile, lean, and collaborative design environments. Hacker paradigm leaders start with human connection, creating a foundation of trust and ownership in teams. They give people a sense of purpose. They cultivate a tribal mindset, focused on shared potential and rewards. They challenge teams to identify unverified assumptions and resolve unknowns through experiments. They spur teams to create value for customers and to work collaboratively to sustain a generative space where life is good and great things get done.

Hackers have a bad reputation. Thanks to the high profile Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks of hacktivist groups like Anonymous, political hacks like attempts to interfere with voter registration databases in the 2016 US election, and criminal hacks like the Sony cyber-attack of 2014, in which hackers stole over 100 terabytes of data and planted malware to erase content from the company’s servers, many people have a dim view of hacking. Hacking is seen as a subversive, immoral activity. Films like Hackers (1995) and the HBO series Mr Robot portray hackers as lonely outsiders who fight governments and corporations. When hackers appear in the media, the article is typically headed with a shot of a shadowy figure hunched over a keyboard, looking like the Grim Reaper in a hoodie.

While the media’s depiction of hackers is not factually incorrect, it is a partial and misleading view, focused exclusively on ‘black hat hackers’, or file breakers. Steven Levy’s seminal book, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (1984), offers a different perspective on hacking that is vital for understanding the broader impact and influence of hacking today. Levy’s account focuses on the True Hackers, a tradition that started at Massachusetts University of Technology (MIT) in the 1960s, where a ragtag band of young electronics engineers volunteered their passion, knowledge, and coding skills to write software for the first generation of user-programmable computers. These hackers created a culture of open, collaborative, exploratory coding (Levy, 2010). In subsequent decades, this tradition fueled the rise of personal computing (and Apple Computers), inspired the free and open source software (FOSS) movement, and contributed massively to the culture and technical infrastructure of the internet. It continues to shape the world of technology today.

In the wake of the dot.com crash of 2001-2002, a new generation of tech entrepreneurs emerged inspired by the practices and principles of hacking. Entrepreneurs like Facebook’s CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Twitter’s Jack Dorsey cut their teeth on open source hacking. The success of their companies helped drive a new wave of interest in fast, cheap, exploratory approaches to product design and small business development. This interest subsequently cohered around three methods: agile development, lean startup and design thinking. These methods, used today by developers, entrepreneurs, and designers internationally, are deeply indebted to the positive tradition of hacking that started at MIT (Rayner, 2018).

Today, hacking is a ubiquitous approach to innovation, a way of solving problems through collaborative, iterated sprints. It is not just for programmers. Anyone can be a hacker, assuming an experimental mindset and a willingness to get hands on, build and learn.

Hacker paradigm leadership

Project managers should attend to these developments. They imply new challenges and vast new opportunities. They require a new kind of leader and a new style of leadership.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.

How to cite this paper: Rayner, T. (2019). How to herd cats: the art of hacker paradigm leadership, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VI, July. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/pmwj83-Jul2019-Rayner-how-to-herd-cats.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Dr. Tim Rayner

Sydney, Australia

 

 

 

Dr Tim Rayner teaches ‘Leadership, Teams & Scalability’ in the MBA (Entrepreneurship) at UTS Business School. He is the author of ‘Hacker Culture and the New Rules of Innovation’ (2018) and the award-winning short film ‘Coalition of the Willing’ (2010). Tim works with leaders and teams on entrepreneurial capacity development, cultural alignment, and lean startup best practice. He runs design sprints with Hello Again, a solution design agency in Byron Bay, Australia.

 

 

The return of the hacker

Rethinking projects, progress, innovation and teams

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School

United Kingdom

 


 

Recent articles in the series focused on entrepreneurship (alongside innovation and creativity), and on the need to reconnect with people at the core of management work. This article links the two areas while revisiting established writing in the domain of managing software projects, and people, and highlighting some of the pioneering thinking that has emerged from that domain before turning to explore new possibilities that can refresh some of the insights and renew some of the conversations.

The mythical man-month: Mixing effort and progress

Re-reading old classics can prove to be both a source of immense pleasure and intense frustration. The pleasure comes from being re-acquainted with an old friend after an extended absence. It is often enriched by the ability to make sense of and see afresh through some of the ideas and writing that appeared in the original source. The passage of time often allows for progress to be seen through an informed lens. But therein also lies the source of deep frustration, when 55 years after the fact, many of the lessons and insights remain equally relevant, yet still appear not to have been embraced or understood.

The mythical man-month was written by Fred Brooks (1975) to recount his experience of managing a very large and rather complex project for IBM ten years earlier. It contains a series of essays that enable the readers to join Brooks in making sense of his management journey. The book is the undisputed best-seller in software engineering, selling over a million copies. Yet, its appeal extends well beyond the realms of the software engineering community, generating reviews, citations and correspondence from lawyers, doctors, psychologists and sociologists (Brooks, 1995; p. 254). If we look for the underlying reason for the enduring appeal of the book, it might well be that the focus on software engineering is simply the context utilised for a more intimate reflection on people, teams, interactions, communication and achievement in projects; areas that still merit attention and that may still defy full understanding.

Indeed, the challenges, constraints and tribulations recounted by Brooks reflect the experiences still encountered on many large projects. Brooks metaphorically locates large-system projects in the pre-historic tar pits where ‘many great and powerful beasts have thrashed violently… Most have met goals, schedules and budgets. Large and small, massive or wiry, (yet) team after team has become entangled in the tar’. (Brooks, 1995; p. 4)

To this day, the annals of failure are still filled with many a great behemoth mired in the metaphorical tar pits. Brooks notes that everyone seems to be surprised by the stickiness of the problem, before asserting that more software projects have gone awry for lack of calendar time than for all other reasons combined (p. 14). He duly identifies a number of contributing causes (which are paraphrased below):

  • Estimation: Techniques for estimating are poorly developed and reflect an unvoiced assumption that all will go well
  • Techniques: Estimation approaches tend to confuse effort with progress, fallaciously assuming that people and time are interchangeable
  • Position: The inherent uncertainty of the estimates allows managers to collapse schedules in order to respond to wishes and expectations
  • Monitoring: Schedule progress is poorly monitored
  • Action: The response to identified slippage is to add resource (manpower), which Brooks equates with dousing a fire with gasoline

However, there are two additional, albeit linked, monumental issues that Brooks labels as fallacious thought modes:

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family.  Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM.  Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. 

How to cite this paper: Dalcher, D. (2019). The return of the hacker: Rethinking projects, progress, innovation and teams, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue VI, July.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/pmwj83-Jul2019-Dalcher-the-return-of-the-hacker.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Darren Dalcher, PhD

Author, Professor, Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School, UK

 

 

 Darren Dalcher, Ph.D., HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SMIEEE, SFHEA is Professor in Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK.  He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 200 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, a leading international software engineering journal. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Routledge and of the companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.  Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, A Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the British Academy of Management. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He sits on numerous senior research and professional boards, including The PMI Academic Member Advisory Group, the APM Research Advisory Group, the CMI Academic Council and the APM Group Ethics and Standards Governance Board.  He is the Academic Advisor and Consulting Editor for the next APM Body of Knowledge. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He is the academic advisor and consulting editor for the forthcoming edition of the APM Body of Knowledge. He can be contacted at d.dalcher@lancaster.ac.uk.

To view other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.

 

Social Process for Project Leaders

 

Advances in Project Management Series

SERIES ARTICLE

By Ian Macdonald (UK)

Prof Catherine Burke (USA)

and

Karl Stewart (Australia)

 


 

A project involves a group of people who are assigned to work on a special task instead of, or in addition to, their normal work load.  A project is created to give concentrated attention to a task of limited and specific duration which may require interdisciplinary skills and experience or expertise from various organizational units or even different organisations.

Projects come in many different sizes and shapes.  There are large construction projects that involve hundreds of people from a variety of trades.  There are small group projects such as Process Improvement Teams (PIT) which may have only 3 people with the authority to call on special expertise within the organization when needed.

There are, of course, many sizes between the extremes as are differing times to completion from a few months to several years.  Despite their differences they all have several things in common.  To have a successful project all three organizational domains — technical, commercial, and social – must be taken into account.  Most organizations are pretty good at the first two; but leave a lot to be desired on the social processes in human interaction.

Systems Leadership Theory has been developed to provide a set of coherent models to assist in understanding the social domain including the culture of and behaviour in organizations.  It is a coherent and integrated theory of organisational behaviour based on over fifty years of worldwide research across many organisations and cultures.  It has a clear leadership model that is also directly related to a theory of human capability that in turn is related to structure and systems.  These ideas have been applied in a variety of organisations and projects in countries around the world and have led to successful project outcomes.

The entirety of the theory cannot be covered in one short paper; for this we refer you to the book, Systems Leadership: Creating Positive Organisations, 2nd ed. (Macdonald, Burke and Stewart, 2018).  Briefly, the theory begins with a model of core shared values which are found in all human societies.  These values of fairness, honesty, trust, respect for human dignity, courage and love are the values that hold human social groups together.  Different individuals and groups have stories (we call them mythologies because these are stories that carry a fundamental truth even when the specifics are fanciful) that demonstrate what is fair or respectful or courageous.  Groups that share common mythologies have what we define as a common culture.

One of the potential difficulties in project work is that members of the project team may have differing mythologies and therefore may view certain leadership behaviour as unfair or disrespectful, even if that is not the intent of the leader nor seen in the same way by others on the team.  It may take some time, but the leader must learn the mythologies of each member of the team and be able to see the world from each team member’s viewpoint if the project is to be successful.

There is also an essential need to recognise the complexity of the project in order to assign a leader who is capable of handling such complexity.  The work of Wilfred Brown (1960; 1971), Elliott Jaques (1976, 1989) and others Jaques ed. (1978), Macdonald (1984), Stamp (1978), Burke and Smith (1992) demonstrates the development of the ideas of levels of work as does Chapter 9 in Systems Leadership (2018).  We have found that most, but certainly not all, projects can be led at the 3rd, 4th or 5th level of complexity.  A few, like the Manhattan Project to develop the atom bomb, may require at least the 7th and possibly the 8th level of capability in the leader.

When the leader is at too low a level, or the project is not well defined, many things can go wrong.  The poet Robert Burns was not thinking of projects when he wrote, “The best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men gang aft a-gley, An’ lea’e us nought but grief an’ pain For promis’d joy,” but as shown in the example below, he anticipated what can happen to a Project Leader.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.

How to cite this paper: Macdonald, I.; Burke, C.; Stewart, K. (2019). Social Process for Project Leaders, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IV (May).  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/pmwj81-May2019-Macdonald-Burke-Stewart-Social-Process-for-Project-Managers.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr. Ian Macdonald

United Kingdom

 

 

Ian Macdonald is a chartered psychologist who graduated with Honours from Brunel University in London. He was an academic staff member at Brunel and continues to be associated there both as a consultant and as a Lifetime Honorary Fellow.  His PhD thesis was about the development of identity of people with learning difficulties through work. Ian is Founder and Director of Macdonald Associates, an international organisational consultancy established in 1983.  He is a director of BIOSS International Ltd.  He is also an honorary fellow at Brunel University, teaches at Surrey Business School and works with NHS Was and Welsh government. Over the past thirty years, Ian’s consultancy work has included many different countries, cultures and types of organisation from indigenous communities to financial services, from mining to the Church, from smelting aluminium in Siberia and Australia, to psychology services in Denmark.  He continues to work across all sectors.

 

 

Dr. Catherine Burke

California, USA

 

 

 Catherine Burke, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Public Administration, Emerita, University of Southern California, Price School of Public Policy where she taught classes for over thirty years at the doctoral, master’s and undergraduate levels.  Her research focuses on organisations and systems design, management theory and leadership.  She has been a consultant to Southern California Edison, the cities of Los Angeles and Pasadena, and the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment.  She conducted two day-long training seminars for the command staff of LAPD in a program created by Chief Bernard Parks, discussing leadership, systems and organization structures that could be used in police departments.  Her publications include Innovation and Public Policy and articles in various academic journals.  She was a Director at Commonwealth Aluminum in Kentucky.

 

 

Karl Stewart

Queensland, Australia

 

 

 Karl Stewart is a mining engineer spending most of his working life in leadership positions.  He spent four years as an internal managerial consultant developing a thorough understanding of the theory underpinning the leadership of people in organisations and the systems that facilitate that activity.  He created and implemented these ideas as Managing Director of Comalco Smelting. He was President of the Australian Mines and Metals Association for several years.  After leaving Comalco Smelting he worked as a consultant to banks, aluminium, mining, finance and metallurgical industries.  He also served eight years as Chairman of a medium sized construction company based in Queensland.

 

 

Beyond authority:

Power to the people

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School

United Kingdom

 


 

In Last month’s article it was noted that effectuation recognises that opportunities are created and effectuation thus puts forward a ‘new’ entrepreneurial way of thinking about developing business. In particular, it was observed that effectuation recognises a plurality of possible new ends, given a set of available means (Dalcher, 2019; p. 5). Entrepreneurs expand the available problem space as they work through emerging opportunities, utilising the resources and connections at their disposal. It is not surprising therefore, that the vast majority of entrepreneurial ventures ultimately develop results that are significantly different to the initial concept they started with.

So, where do entrepreneurs find their inspiration and what resources can they rely upon?

Serial entrepreneur, Sir Richard Branson, puts it into context, when he states that ‘clients do not come first. Employees come first’.

The explanation is rather simple, as Branson quickly adds that ‘if you take care of your employees, they will take care of the clients’.

Branson’s ideas do not appear to chime with post-industrial thinking that emphasises shareholder value. Indeed, they don’t directly support a move towards stakeholder thinking either.

Putting your people first

Conventional wisdom dictates that businesses put their customers first, and endeavour to satisfy or even delight them. The customer is always right, goes the thinking, and after all we do need them to return and use our service that continues to delight them repeatedly…

This makes sense to the extent that business relies on customers to engage with the product or service so that the company can start collecting value from the new patterns of use. So, it would take a brave entrepreneur to turn things on their head and reverse the business model. But that’s what successful entrepreneurs do…

HCL Technologies (HCLT) is an Indian multinational technology company headquartered in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. The company aims to deliver innovative technology solutions based around emerging ideas such as Digital, Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud, Automation, Cybersecurity, Analytics, Infrastructure Management and Engineering. HCLT was originally formed as a research and development division of HCL, and emerged as an independent company in 1991 when HCL ventured into the competitive software services business.

Vineet Nayar took over as the CEO of HCLT in 2005. Nayar (2010) candidly admits that when he took over he did not have a grand plan for the business. Indeed, while Nayar managed to completely transform his business, the phases for the transformation became clear to him only after the transformation fog had started clearing.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family.  Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM.  Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. 

How to cite this paper: Dalcher, D. (2019). Beyond authority: Power to the people, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue IV (May). Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/pmwj81-May2019-Dalcher-beyond-authority-power-to-the-people.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Darren Dalcher, PhD

Author, Professor, Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School, UK

 

 

 Darren Dalcher, Ph.D., HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SMIEEE, SFHEA is Professor in Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK.  He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 200 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, a leading international software engineering journal. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Routledge and of the companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.  Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, A Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the British Academy of Management. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He sits on numerous senior research and professional boards, including The PMI Academic Member Advisory Group, the APM Research Advisory Group, the CMI Academic Council and the APM Group Ethics and Standards Governance Board.  He is the Academic Advisor and Consulting Editor for the next APM Body of Knowledge. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He is the academic advisor and consulting editor for the forthcoming edition of the APM Body of Knowledge. He can be contacted at d.dalcher@lancaster.ac.uk.

To view other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.

 

Effectual Project Management:

Thinking Like an Expert Entrepreneur

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Laura Mathiaszyk, PhD, Prof Christine Volkmann and Prof Stuart Read

Germany and USA

 


 

The most complex of them all?

Quick – think of a complicated project. Did implementing an ERP system in a large organization come to mind? Maybe developing a next-generation high technology product? How about starting a new venture? The new venture might not have been your first intuition. But take a step back and consider it. It represents the ultimate complicated project. All the complicated projects rolled up into one mega-complicated project. That new venture needs a new product or service. It needs an ERP system. It needs a strategy and a customer generation/retention process. It needs marketing and finance and human resources … and the list continues. Much work has sought to bring ideas and processes from project management to entrepreneurs, but surprisingly little has gone the other direction. In this article, we seek to expose a few things entrepreneurs, in many ways super-project managers, have learned from starting ventures, and translate them back into ideas for managing projects in larger organizations. As we do, it is important to appreciate one additional complexity borne by the entrepreneur. Aside from the broad aspiration of building a venture, the goals of the project (the venture) are uncertain at the start and can be subject to constant revision as the project unfolds. As such, the tools and approaches learned by expert entrepreneurs may be extremely valuable to project managers facing similar levels of uncertainty.

Corporate projects and entrepreneurial projects

Useful tools help capture relevant information, enable managers to strategize and facilitate a plan that fits project target, context and surrounding conditions. Thereby, tools differ in various aspects. Projects that have a fixed goal or objective use tools to sequence the steps and follow the most efficient linear, or causal logic (please see Figure 1; Traditional Waterfall). In situations of greater ambiguity, breaking a big project down into smaller “sprints” enables manageable work increments and allows for project objectives to evolve after the project has begun, by implementing agile or dynamic cycles (please see Figure 1; Agile or Scrum). But entrepreneurs face a far more open-ended problem. In addition to managing a different project for each function in the organization, it is unclear at the outset what the startup will end up doing. Certainly the objective is to create a viable venture, but that is a very broad goal. More than 90% of new ventures end up doing something different than the idea they started with (Reynolds, Carter, Gartner, & Greene 2004), so the notion entrepreneurs write a business plan and execute it in a systematic and organized fashion is naïve. Instead, the entrepreneurial approach to a project starts with the resources readily available at hand, explicitly incorporates feedback loops into the process, and functions atop elements within the control of the entrepreneur (Sarasvathy & Dew 2005). A stylized representation of the entrepreneurial approach is contrasted with the traditional and agile approaches to project management in the diagrams in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Contrast of traditional, agile and entrepreneurial project approaches

What expert entrepreneurs learn

Within the entrepreneurship literature, scholars have been fascinated to understand how experts in the domain think. Effectuation (Sarasvathy 2001) offers a clear and well-researched foundation of entrepreneurial expertise that we develop and apply to project management. Effectuation was induced from a cognitive science study of 27 entrepreneur founders (started multiple ventures, taken at least one to $250m in sales, spent more than 15 years in the domain). The central finding in effectuation is expert entrepreneurs focus on elements within their control “to bring about effect”, i.e. shape, develop, initiate, and create beneficial outcomes. Effectuation contrasts with causal or linear processes that build on prediction, goal-setting and forecasting. The general explanation for why expert entrepreneurs learn effectual heuristics is connected with their domain. New venture creation is an inherently uncertain activity, where (market) analyses are expensive and insufficient because of high complexity and unknown dynamics. In such a domain, predictions offer the entrepreneur limited meaningful input, so the entrepreneur adopts alternative heuristics. The entrepreneurial approach diagrammed in Figure 1 assumes the environment is constructible through the actions of the entrepreneur and her committed stakeholders, and enables project goals to emerge as negotiated residuals of stakeholder commitments.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.

How to cite this paper: Mathiaszyk, L., Volkmann, C., Read, S. (2019). Effectual Project Management: Thinking Like an Expert Entrepreneur, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue III (April). Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/pmwj80-Apr2019-Effectual-Project-Management-advances-series-article.pdf

 


 

About the Authors

Dr. Laura Paulina Mathiaszyk

Essen, Germany

 

 

Laura P. Mathiaszyk, Dr. sc. oec. (scientiarum oeconomicarum), is a social entrepreneur and founder of the Eco- and Adventure Travel Business TRAIL.VIEW. In addition, she manages projects supporting cultural diversity, integration and women’s empowerment. Her doctoral research at the Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, University of Wuppertal (Germany) focused on effectuation. Building on her consultancy experience, her thesis offers an investigation of how effectuation helps corporations deal with uncertainty.  Dr. Mathiaszyk can be contacted at laura@trail-view.de

 

Prof Christine Volkmann

University of Wuppertal
Wuppertal, Germany

 

Christine Volkmann is a Professor at the Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, University of Wuppertal (Germany) and head of the UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship and Intercultural Management. She is also a director of the Institute for Entrepreneurship and Innovations Research (IGIF) and executive committee member of the interdisciplinary Jackstädt Research Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Her research focusses on Social Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Ecosystem, Academic Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Leadership and International Entrepreneurship.  Prof Volmann can be contacted at volkmann@wiwi.uni-wuppertal.de

 

Prof Stuart Read

Willamette University
Salem, Oregon, USA

 

Stuart Read is a Professor at the Atkinson Graduate School of Management, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, USA. His research is focused on effectuation. Derived from practices employed by expert entrepreneurs, effectuation is a set of heuristics that describe how people make decisions and take action in situations of true uncertainty. As uncertainty is pervasive across all aspects of firms, markets and organizations, his work on effectuation applies to, and has been published in a variety of disciplinary areas. Prof Read can be contacted at sread@Willamette.edu

 

 

 

The entrepreneurship advantage:

Looking in new places

 

Advances in Project Management

SERIES ARTICLE

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School

United Kingdom

 


 

The notion of entrepreneurship has attracted considerable interest within management and business since its first appearance in 1437 (Westhead & Wright, 2013; p. 4) and its more popular and common use through the pioneering writing of Jean-Baptiste Say (1803). Yet, while entrepreneurship seems to imply novel projects and undertakings in challenging new contexts, it is very seldomly invoked in project management dialogues. One might have expected the relative proximity between the disciplines to have resulted in greater commonalities and sharing, however in reality the project management community has remained somewhat oblivious to advances in entrepreneurship and to the potential for inter-disciplinary collaboration.

What is this thing called entrepreneurship?

Entrepreneurship is not an easy concept to nail down, and many alternative definitions have been proposed. Entrepreneurship is often associated with the starting and running of new businesses. Westhead & Wright (2013; p. 1) suggest that entrepreneurs can be ‘vital agents of innovative change whose actions lead to the creation of new firms. They can also transform existing firms to exploit economic and socially beneficial opportunities.’

Entrepreneurship has been associated with the creation of something new or different, including new enterprise (Lumpkin & Dess, 1996), new organisations (Low & Macmillan, 1988), as well as new ventures, new markets, and new opportunities (Read et al., 2017). Shane & Venkataraman, identify entrepreneurship as ‘the scholarly examination of how, by whom, and with what effects opportunities to create future goods and services are discovered, evaluated, and exploited’. (2000; p. 218).

Entrepreneurs are often associated with promoting and creating new economic development and social well-being. However, whilst entrepreneurs are linked to ‘generating’ new sources of competitive advantage, their actions can also play a part in ‘destroying’ or replacing older firms, traditions, occupations and jobs. Indeed, Davidsson (2004) positions entrepreneurship as ‘new entry’ through the launching of product, service or business model innovation, as well as ‘imitative entry’, where a new competitor appears on the scene, giving buyers expanded choice opportunities, and thereby threatening established firms. Entrepreneurships can thereby have a wider impact on surrounding systems and environments:

Entrepreneurship can disrupt most industrial sectors, forcing significant changes in product and service offerings, new logistics processes, and new business models.’ (GEM, 2018; p. 16)

Stokes et al. (2010) propose three dimensions of entrepreneurship focused on:

  • the outcomes of entrepreneurship;
  • the processes taken by entrepreneurs; and,
  • the behaviours required by entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship can therefore be perceived as a synthesis of the three dimensions, for example, by observing the behaviours undertaken within and alongside the processes of discovery, development and exploitation related to new ventures with a focus on value and outcomes.

Entrepreneurship is thus concerned with emergent phenomena (Stokes et al.; p. 34). Histrich & Peters perhaps best capture the inherent complexity in terms that will chime with the experiences of many project managers:

Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence.’  (Hisrich & Peters, 2002; p. 8)

How project management lost its way

In the wake of the Second World War, project management was entrusted with a significant range of intricate and demanding undertakings, often requiring the integration of complex components, sub-systems, systems, projects, programmes and specialisms (Dalcher, 2015; p. 1). Many of the new initiatives were ambitious, unprecedented, and extremely innovative requiring an entrepreneurial mindset, and a systemic approach to match the rising ambition and complexity levels.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family.  Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM.  Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. 

How to cite this paper: Dalcher, D. (2019). The entrepreneurship advantage: Looking in new places, PM World Journal, Volume VIII, Issue III (April).  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/pmwj80-Apr2019-Dalcher-the-entrepreneurship-advantage.pdf

 


 

About the Author

Darren Dalcher, PhD

Author, Professor, Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
Lancaster University Management School, UK

 

Darren Dalcher, Ph.D., HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SMIEEE, SFHEA is Professor in Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK.  He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 200 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, a leading international software engineering journal. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Routledge and of the companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.  Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, A Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the British Academy of Management. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He sits on numerous senior research and professional boards, including The PMI Academic Member Advisory Group, the APM Research Advisory Group, the CMI Academic Council and the APM Group Ethics and Standards Governance Board.  He is the Academic Advisor and Consulting Editor for the next APM Body of Knowledge. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He is the academic advisor and consulting editor for the forthcoming edition of the APM Body of Knowledge. He can be contacted at d.dalcher@lancaster.ac.uk.

To view other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.

 

 

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