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PMP Exam Preparation

 

BOOK REVIEW

Book Title:  PMP Exam Preparation Test Questions, Practice Test, and Simulated Exam
Author:  Dr. Ginger Levin, PgMP, PMP
Publisher:  CRC Press
List Price:   $63.96
Format:  Spiral Bound Paperback- 388 pages
Publication Date:  2019               
ISBN: 13-978-0-8152-7910-2
Reviewer: Rodger L. Martin
Review Date: September 2019

 


 

Introduction

In 2019, just a little more than a year after releasing The PMBOK Guide – A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge Sixth Edition, PMI announced that the focus of the PMP Examination questions would change December 15, 2019.  In late August 2019, they announced that the focus of PMP Examination questions would not be changed until July 2020.  The reason stated was that several education providers and chapters needed more time to prepare and update their publications.  The PMBOK Guide Sixth Edition added four additional sections to each Knowledge Area:  Key Concepts, Trends and Emerging Practices, Tailoring Considerations, and Considerations for Agile/Adaptive Environments.

Dr. Ginger Levin, the holder of the second certification in Program Management, died in late 2018.  She had served the project management community for more than 50 years.  This examination preparation book of questions is still relevant at least until June 2020.

Overview of Book’s Structure

  • 10 Chapters (One for each Knowledge Area) – 50 questions and answers with reference to the PMBOK and the PMP Examination Content Outline.
  • Practice Test – A 200-question practice test is designed to simulate the certification exam.
  • Study Matrix – Each question is identified with Performance Domain and Knowledge Area.
  • Answer Key – The Answer Key for each question identifies the best answer and provides a rationale paragraph.  It also contains a reference to the PMBOK Guide (page number) and the PMP Examination Content Outline Process and Task.

More…

To read entire Book Review, click here

 


 

About the Reviewer


Rodger L. Martin, JD, MBA, BSEE, PMP, PMI-ACP

Texas, USA

 

 

 

Rodger L. Martin has a broad background in business, law, engineering and Project Management, both plan-driven and Agile.  He is a retired US Air Force officer with expertise in rockets and National Ranges.  His work experiences include government, military, public corporations, small business consulting and high-tech non-profit organizations.  For the last 20 years, he has worked on Document Management, Knowledge Management and Process Management/Modeling projects for commercial companies.  He acquired his PMP certification in 2007 and his PMI-ACP in 2015.  He is also a certified Mediator.  He is a member of both the Dallas and Alamo (San Antonio) Chapters of PMI.  He is the Director of Book Reviews for the Alamo Chapter.

Email address: 10751@impulse.net

LinkedIn Profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/rodgerlmartin

 

Editor’s note:  This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Alamo Chapter. Authors and publishers offer the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Alamo Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library.  PMI Alamo Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. 

If you have read a good recently-published book related to managing programs, projects or teams of professionals, consider authoring a book review for publication in the PM World Journal.  For our standard format or for more information, contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com or visit https://pmworldlibrary.net/book-review-program/

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com.

 

 

Successful System Deployment through Operational Readiness

 

BOOK REVIEW

Book Title:  Successful System Deployment through Operational Readiness   
Author:  Pascal Bohulu Mabelo
Publisher:  E 6 Project Consulting (Pty) Ltd (South Africa)
List Price:   Free Download
Format:  PDF eBook
Publication Date:   2018
ISBN: 978-0-620-79883-9
Reviewer: Ivan Kotcher, PMP
Review Date: July 2019

 


 

Introduction

Many project management books focus on the day-in and day-out of project management—usually focusing on how to keep projects on track in terms of scope, quality, budget.  Very few focus on how best to start a project or how to ensure ongoing success once the immediate objective of the project has been reached and the outcomes delivered.  This book is a welcome addition to the art of thinking holistically about why even well-executed projects can result in outcomes that do not succeed in helping the business or governmental organization executing them, and addressing what critical success factors are involved in guiding positive integration with the preexisting environment.

Just as a project and program team has to be prepared through the organizational and structured management strategies of good practice, customer organizations also have to be prepared to receive project results.  Requirements understanding in terms of customer goals is critical, but so is analysis about how the benefits of the project or program will be maintained over time.  Acceptance of changes resulting from, or even intended by, the project usually requires attention to both the environment surrounding the project (e.g., physical environment in the case of construction projects, legal or regulatory policies) and to what is driving the behaviors the people who make up an organization (e.g., skills level, performance indicators, or even cultural mores).

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book is structured as a broad overview of planning for Operational Readiness, the term used for preparing for ongoing operations.  The author focuses primarily on Large Infrastructure Projects (LIPs), but information technology (IT) infrastructure projects also receive some attention.  The book begins by defining operational readiness by reference to systems engineering and systems thinking, considering it in terms of maintenance, ongoing operations, and retirement as aspects of the ongoing lifecycle of project deliverables.  The book has multiple references to available literature from the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and several individual authors, providing a coherent explanation and approach to exploring the subject.

While arguments for the scope of the necessity of operational readiness are welcome, the book also provides some good concrete examples to prove the point.  The most effective one revolves around the design, delivery, and operations of Terminal 5 at Heathrow Airport (just outside London, one of the largest airports in the world)—a clear failure on delivery due to the lack of attention on service transition to operations.  Lessons learned and applied in later airport expansion are covered, which drives the point home.

More…

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About the Reviewer


Ivan Kotcher

Texas, USA

 

 

 

Ivan Kotcher, PMP, is a project and program manager with strategic and operational consulting experience across the full breadth of data center infrastructure management.  He has over 20 years of experience working with telecommunications and application hosting companies ranging in size from global carriers to startups.   He currently works as a Principal Consultant with Infosys, helping customers to evolve business processes and associated supporting technologies to improve cost profiles and service delivery.

Ivan can be contacted at ikotcher@ot-partners.com

 

Editor’s note:  This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review who agree to provide a review within 45 days; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. 

If you have read a good recently-published book related to managing programs, projects or teams of professionals, consider authoring a book review for publication in the PM World Journal.  For our standard format or for more information, contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com or visit https://pmworldlibrary.net/book-review-program/

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com.

 

 

The Four Pillars of Portfolio Management

 

BOOK REVIEW

Book Title:  The Four Pillars of Portfolio Management: Organizational Agility, Strategy, Risk, and Resources         
Author:  Olivier Lazar
Publisher:  CRC Press
List Price:   $79.95
Format:  Hardcover, 169 pages
Publication Date: October 2018   
ISBN: 9781138601321
Reviewer: B. K. Gamble, MBA, PMP, PHR
Review Date: July 2019

 


 

Introduction

The basic premise of Olivier Lazar’s book is his description of the four pillars of Portfolio Management: Organizational Agility, Strategy, Risk, and Resources. Prior to reviewing each of the four pillars, the author introduces and describes the differences between Projects, Programs, and Portfolios. Throughout the book, Olivier consistently contrasted the differences between Projects, Programs, and Portfolios and how they interact with each other.

Overview of Book’s Structure

Chapter 2 provides the context of Portfolio Management. In this chapter, Olivier identifies the following levels: strategic, operational, project, program, and governance layers. This chapter provides a clear explanation of the differences between Projects, Programs, and Portfolios.

Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 provide a detailed review and tools for each of the four pillars of Portfolio Management in greater detail: Organizational Agility, Your Organization’s Strategy, Risk, and Resource Demand Planning.

Chapter 7 (Managing Your Portfolio) introduces the Portfolio Roadmap as the essential planning tool for pacing the various components within your portfolio. Olivier stresses the importance of maintaining alignment of the portfolio with the organization’s strategy.

Chapter 8 (Evolution and Future Developments in Portfolio Management) provides a look into the future of how artificial intelligence (AI) will automate many of the project management activities that are usually performed by the PMOs.

Chapter 9 (Conclusion) notes the importance of using our limited human resources in a way that creates real value. How a company treats its human resources and considers them in the value creation process is the true competitive advantage for an organization.

The book provides a table of figures as well as a lexicon of terms the author uses throughout the book.

Highlights

Olivier did a great job of defining and providing good examples of Portfolio Management, Program Management, and Project Management throughout the book. The author stressed the importance of having a governance layer in place to support and integrate all the levels (Portfolio, Program, and Project) into a single framework.

The role of Portfolio Management is to translate the organizational strategy into a plan and execute this plan through the various programs and projects. Portfolio Management provides the connection between the operational and tactical layers and the human resource management layers in the organization.

Portfolio Management also provides the channel through which the strategy will be made visible, understandable, and shared throughout the entire organization and even outside the organization. The author makes it clear that the strategy has to be made public. Everyone in the company must be aware of the strategic vision and the strategy. The strategic vision is what drives people and what commits and engages them.

In Chapter 2 (Context of Portfolio Management), Olivier explained the differences and the pros and cons of three different organizational structures: functional, projectized, and matrix in the context of Portfolio Management.

More…

To read entire Book Review, click here

 


 

About the Reviewer


B.K. Gamble, MBA, PMP, PHR

Kerrville, Texas, USA

 

 

 

B.K. Gamble is currently the HR Training and Development Manager for a non-profit operating foundation in the Texas Hill Country and is a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI Alamo Chapter). B.K.’s career was focused in the Information Technology arena for over 25 years; she jumped on the Project Management band wagon 15 years ago.

B.K. has a B.S. in Computer Science, a M.B.A. in Information Systems, and has held the Project Management Professional (PMP) certification since 2001. She recently acquired the PHR certification. B. K. has varied interests but considers herself to be a “life-long” learner and seeks opportunities to improve herself by learning new skills and serving others.

She can be contacted at www.linkedin.com/in/bkgamble

 

Editor’s note:  This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Alamo Chapter. Authors and publishers offer the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Alamo Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library.  PMI Alamo Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. 

If you have read a good recently-published book related to managing programs, projects or teams of professionals, consider authoring a book review for publication in the PM World Journal.  For our standard format or for more information, contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com or visit https://pmworldlibrary.net/book-review-program/

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact Editor@pmworldjournal.com.

 

 

The Project Stakeholder Analysis Process

 

SECOND EDITION

Aurangzeb Z. Khan

Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan

and

Miroslaw J. Skibniewski and John H. Cable

Project Management Center for Excellence
James A. Clark School of Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland, USA

 


 

ABSTRACT

A general consensus prevails in the project management community that stakeholders are a prime critical success factor on all pro­­jects, especially on large and in technical and managerial perspective complex ones such as those often encountered in construction and civil infrastructure development. Conse­quently, in order to boost project performance, reduce risk to projects, and to realize to the maximum attainable ex­tent the benefits brought about by the pro­jects after their completion, it is imperative to manage and engage the stake­holders profession­ally and effectively over the project life-cycle. A thorough stakeholder analysis constitutes the foundation of effective stake­hol­der manage­ment and engagement.

The importance of stakeholder analysis is now widely acknowledged and used in practice. Though its application across the project category spectrum, including on con­struc­tion and civil infrastructure development projects is widespread, there still appears to exist a need to further educate project owners, planners and other key decision-makers about unexplored possibilities offered by the stakeholder analysis process and how its practical usefulness can be enhanced. What seems to be lacking at present is a rigorous analy­tical framework which incorporates a set of integrated and sophisticated tools capable of de­li­vering detailed and multi-dimensional insights about project stakeholders with a consistently high level of accuracy over time.

Based on their research on the subject of project stakeholder manage­ment and enga­ge­ment, their decades of experience with projects, and a careful study of existing stakeholder analysis approaches and tools contained in avail­able docu­mentation taken from numerous large and complex projects undertaken in several project categories and across the globe, the authors present in this paper a compre­hen­sive project stakeholder analysis process framework which they believe can supplement and add value to existing approaches used by projects to analyze their stake­hol­ders. Themes discussed include the process bene­fits, challenges and constraints, and the importance of having an enabling environment and acquisition of quality informa­tion on project stake­hol­ders for the analysis to deliver optimal results. Highlighted in this paper are five powerful stakeholder analysis tools which, if applied in a coordinated manner, may deliver all the salient insights and knowledge needed by projects to effectively manage and engage their stakeholders over their life-cycles. These tools are the Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis, the Stake­holder Attribute Analysis, the Stakeholder Issues & Complications Ana­ly­sis, Stake­holder Scoring Models, and the Stakeholder Scenarios & Project Impact Analysis.

Through their research the authors hope to motivate projects to improve the quality of their stakeholder analysis. A robust stakeholder analysis will serve the inte­rests of the projects significantly in the sense that it can reduce the risk of conflicts occurring between projects and their stakeholders and also provide projects with guidance how to respond appropriately in the event that con­flicts with stakeholders do occur over the project life-cycle. The interests of the stakeholders will also be served accordingly.

Introductory Comments

Stakeholder analysis has been an integral part of the project planning process for decades. Many documented examples taken from actual projects undertaken in fields as diverse as water resource management, forestry, social development, mining, urban regeneration and con­struc­tion and civil infrastructure, some dating back to the early 1990s, were discovered by the authors while researching for this paper. Interestingly, most of the stakeholder analyses reviewed are actually quite recent speci­mens, having appeared after the advent of the new millen­nium with increasing frequency of appearance as well as complexity of con­tent over time. Presumably, this reflects an increa­sing awareness of the importance of stake­­hol­ders on pro­jects and broad concurrence among project key decision-makers of the need for understand­ing them and managing and engaging them effectively. In fact, stakeholder analysis is almost a universal feature on all projects today.

It is now generally accepted that project stakeholders basically fall into two major categories: The ‘primary stake­hol­ders’ which encompasses all those entities having contractual obliga­tions or some legal responsibility towards the project, and the ‘secondary stakeholders’ which include all those entities having neither contractual obligations nor legal responsibility to the project but which are affected by it directly or indirectly in some way or the other, and posi­tively or negatively, or both, over time. Examples of key primary stakeholders typically en­coun­tered on large and complex projects, as in construction and civil infrastructure de­ve­lop­ment, are the pro­ject owner or client, steering committee, financers, designers, consul­tants, contractors and sub-contrac­tors, vendors, project manager and project team, and govern­ment agencies involved in the pro­ject. More significant secondary stakeholders on such projects would usually include affect­ed local communities, civic and professional organizations, advocacy groups and environ­men­talists, media and academia, and some government agencies. All stakeholders have their respective interests in and views of the project and these can vary widely and change over time.

If primary and secondary stakeholders come to view the project as constituting a threat to their interests than it is logical to assume they will resist it using the means available to them. Resis­tance which is active, strong and sustained can seriously affect the project causing it to expe­rience cost and schedule overruns, image loss, demotivation of its employees, reduced benefit realization after completion, non-attainment of some of its objectives, or in the ex­treme case even endanger the project’s existence through the possibility of enforced pre­mature termination. Secondary stakeholders who, unlike the primary stakeholders, lie outside the project’s formal control and may not be known well to the project, at least initially, but neverthe­less may pose an especially high risk to it by excercizing against the project a spectrum of options which are available at their disposal. Many high-profile projects have been seriously affected by hostile stakeholder action and several examples were discussed by the authors in a previous paper on the subject.

More…

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019. It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Author last name, first initial. (2019). The Project Stakeholder Analysis Process; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at  https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Khan-Skibniewski-Cable-project-stakeholder-analysis-process.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan

 

 

 

Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Management Sciences at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology in Islamabad, Pakistan. He introduced Pakistan’s first master degree program in project management at his university in the fall semester 2008. His prime areas of research are project stakeholder management, and project monitoring and evaluation, which he teaches to project management graduate-level students.  He can be contacted at aurangzeb_khan@comsats.edu.pk

 


Dr. Miroslaw J. Skibniewski

University of Maryland
College Park, MD, USA

 

 

Dr. Miroslaw Skibniewski is a Professor in the Center of Excellence in Project Management at the University of Maryland.  He is also Editor-in-Chief of Automation in Construction, an international research journal published by Elsevier, and North American Editor of the Journal of Civil Engineering and Management published by Taylor & Francis.  An author/coauthor of over 200 research publications, he lectures on information/automation technologies in construction, construction equipment management, and legal aspects of engineering.  Miroslaw can be contacted at mirek@umd.edu

 


John Cable

Director, Project Management Center for Excellence
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

 

 

 John Cable is Director of the Project Management Center for Excellence in the A.J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland, where he is also a professor and teacher of several graduate courses in project management.  His program at the University of Maryland offers masters and PhD level programs focused on project management. With more than 1,300 seats filled annually with students from many countries, including more than 40 PhD students, the program is the largest graduate program in project management at a major university in the United States.

John Cable served in the newly formed U.S. Department of Energy in 1980, where he was involved with developing energy standards for buildings, methods for measuring energy consumption, and managing primary research in energy conservation.  As an architect and builder, Mr. Cable founded and led John Cable Associates in 1984, a design build firm. In 1999 he was recruited by the University of Maryland’s Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering to create and manage a graduate program in project management.  In his role as founder and director of the Project Management Center for Excellence at Maryland, the program has grown to offer an undergraduate minor, master’s degrees, and a doctoral program. Information about the Project Management Center for Project Management at the University of Maryland can be found at www.pm.umd.edu.

In 2002, PMI formed the Global Accreditation Center for Project Management Educational Programs (GAC).  Mr. Cable was appointed to that inaugural board where he served as vice chair.  In 2006, he was elected as chairman, a role he held through 2012.  As Chair of the PMI GAC, John led the accreditation of 86 project management educational programs at 40 institutions in 15 countries in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America and the Asia Pacific Region. John was awarded PMI’s 2012 Distinguished Contribution Award for his leadership at the GAC.  He can be contacted at jcable@umd.edu.

 

 

Capturing Costs and Value of Research Products

 

SECOND EDITION

By Anne Johnson

Demographic Statistical Methods Division
U.S. Bureau of the Census

Washington, DC, USA

 


 

ABSTRACT

The nature of research projects does not lend itself to project management. Requirements are rarely concrete, scope is evolving, and each project is an entirely new problem to find solutions for. With so much unpredictability, how can we possibly estimate research costs accurately? Is there a way to determine the value of research products?

This paper will discuss the project management methods and processes developed to help estimate costs, manage budgets, and better determine the value of products for research initiatives. I will also discuss useful tips on how to effectively manage costs and budget from the planning phase through project closeout.

INTRODUCTION   

Research is an approach to solving problems, developing new methods, and improving existing processes. Research involves creativity, trial and error, and exploration, exposing it to variability, unknowns, and risk. How can we possibly assign a level of effort to a research initiative when all these factors are at play?

From my experience managing externally sponsored, reimbursable research projects at the U.S. Census Bureau, the budgets for these initiatives are never large, scope is complex and ever-evolving, and the process for initiating and tracking these projects was often informal and inconsistent. Due to the nature of research projects, it was challenging to avoid issues, such as poorly estimated costs, budget overruns, and scope creep. It was also difficult to determine the value of the final ‘product’.

In this paper, I will discuss methods to improve cost estimation, budget management, and how to better determine the value of research.

COST ESTIMATION

The goal of cost estimation is to produce an estimate that is accurate, all-encompassing, reasonable, and defensible. Achieving all of these factors is not easy, especially when estimating costs for research initiatives. Here is an eight-step cost estimation process that can help accomplish this goal.

Cost Estimation Process:

  1. Determine Scope
  2. Provide Historical Data
  3. Estimate Effort
  4. Estimate Costs
  5. Review & Update Cost Estimate
  6. Develop Cost Estimate Memo
  7. Send & Negotiate Cost Estimate
  8. Follow Up & Finalize

Below I will go into each step in more detail, adding in some best practices and lessons learned.

Step 1: Determine Scope

Work with the project sponsor to determine the scope.

  • Start with the overall goals of the project then break that down further into requirements
  • Ensure that the final deliverable is defined (i.e. a final report on project findings)
  • Discuss constraints, initial risks, and any information that could be useful to the project
  • Determine if the project is feasible given staff skillsets, availability, and timeframe
  • Make sure key project stakeholders are in agreement and fully understand the scope
  • Set realistic expectations

Lesson Learned: This step is crucial! It sounds simple, but too often projects have ill-defined scope and the final product is unclear. You are almost guaranteed to experience scope creep and/or budget issues down the line if you do not thoroughly discuss and agree to expected outcomes of the project.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Johnson, A. (2019). Capturing Costs and Value of Research Products; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Johnson-capturing-cost-and-value-of-research-products.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Anne Johnson

Washington, DC, USA

 

 

 

Anne Johnson graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a Bachelor’s of Science in Mathematics and Economics in 2012. Shortly after graduating, Anne began her career at the US Census Bureau working in the Economic Directorate as an analyst on the Service Annual Survey and the 2012 Economic Census.

Anne joined the Demographic Statistical Methods Division as a project manager in February of 2015. She has provided project management support to the American Housing Survey, National Survey of College Graduates, the Current Population Survey Supplements, and Survey Methodology research projects. In this role, Anne has developed and managed over 50 project schedules, produced cost estimates for survey work and research projects, monitored the budgets for reimbursable projects, created reports to assist management with resource allocation and budget management, developed training materials, and managed contracts as a COR.

Anne received a Master’s Certificate in Project Management, her PMP certification in 2016 and her COR certification in 2017.

Anne Johnson can be contacted at anne.e.johnson@census.gov

 

 

Project Management in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

 

SECOND EDITION

By Chaitali D. Chheda

North Texas, USA

 


 

Abstract

Have you ever wondered how the Project Management role will evolve after Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is operational? Are you wondering whether Project Management roles will become obsolete with Artificial Intelligence?

This paper aims at presenting the ways in which the evolution of AI is likely to change the Project Management role. Project Management is globally accepted, used in various industries and translates distinctly in every industry. In the past few decades, it has become a highly desirable and sought-after role, as businesses demand that project work be completed on time, within budget and prescribed quality constraints. We constantly implement processes and changes that enable us to meet these demands. In doing so, we hear a lot about Artificial Intelligence becoming the ultimate game-changer across all industries and as Project or Program managers we wonder how it will change or eliminate our roles. In this paper, the author presents the evolution of AI, its components and how it is likely to change certain aspects of Project Management. It is based on the author’s research on this subject.

VUCA – Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity

Our existence is characterized by VUCA now more than ever. Internet gained popularity at the start of the century and then came smart phones; smart gadgets and we are now headed into a more advanced era of intelligent machines or Artificial Intelligence (A.I.). ‘Artificial Intelligence’ signifies that which is manufactured but has the capability to learn just like humans and compute at a much higher capacity than an average human. As A.I. progresses, more people are contemplating that large sectors of workforce are likely to be taken over by machines, thus bringing mass scales of global unemployment due to the volatility and the uncertainty associated with it. How accurate is this conclusion? It is definitely not a simple answer as it cannot be common across all the industries across the globe, thereby making it complex and ambiguous.

This paper will address the factors of VUCA associated with Artificial Intelligence as applied to Project Management and is based on the author’s research on the subject.

Background: Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is one of the emerging technologies that we increasingly hear about, along with others like Renewable Energy, Cloud Computing and Cryptocurrency. We begin to ask ourselves – Why is this so important? Why are the progressive countries gearing towards it? Why are governments reserving budgets for A.I. capability? The seed for A.I. enablement was planted in March 2016 when Lee Se-Dol, a South Korean master, was defeated by the board game AlphaGo. Google’s AlphaGo is a complex computer program that generates a board game that requires intuition, strategic and creative thinking. It is trained to mimic human play by matching the moves of expert players to generate a more complex algorithm. The main objective of the gaming community that is comprised of scientists and researchers is for the computer to defeat an expert human player and then enhance the algorithms further as part of research for Artificial Intelligence systems. Prior to AlphaGo, some researchers had claimed that computers could never defeat humans, thus maintaining that a human brain is far more superior to a computer. The defeat of Lee Se-Dol had a profound impact on the political community in China whose main concern has been its decline in population owing to its one-child policy that was followed for decades until 2015. In May 2016, Google brought AlphaGo to China where it defeated Ke Jie of China. This paved the way for a fresh flow of investments from the Chinese government into strengthening A.I. According to a recent study, the U.S. tech giant IBM had the highest A.I. patent portfolio of 8,920 patents, followed by Microsoft at 5,930, whereas China accounted for 17 of the top 20 academic institutions involved in patenting A.I. With the world’s largest economies competing for the top spot, the White House issued an executive order on February 11, 2019, announcing that it will encourage research in the field of A.I in the United States.

The key factor that differentiates the systems employing the latest capabilities of Artificial Intelligence is their ability to learn and apply these learnings progressively without any modifications to their algorithms. AlphaGo is more successful than its previous versions because of its ability to learn from other games and apply its learnings to the future games. The latest version of the game, called AlphaGo Zero is the most advanced. It is loaded with the rules of the game without any other data from the past games. It learns from the random games that are chosen until it is able to apply these learnings progressively.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Chheda, C.D. (2019). Project Management in the Age of Artificial Intelligence; presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Chheda-project-management-in-age-of-artificial-intelligence.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Chaitali Chheda

North Texas, USA

 

 

 

Chaitali D. Chheda is employed by ECOM consulting INC. and works at Citigroup as a Program Manager. She has over 18 years of experience in the Information Technology Industry and has worked globally with financial services’ companies like American Express and Capital One, in Information Technology as well as in other areas. She can be contacted at chaitalichheda@gmail.com

 

 

Big data from social media and scientific literature databases

reveals relationships among risk management, project management and project success

 

SECOND EDITION

By Maria Papadaki2, Nikolaos Bakas4, Edward Ochieng2, Ioannis Karamitsos3 and Richard Kirkham1

1Univerity of Manchester, UK. 2British University in Dubai, UAE. 3Rochester Institute Technology, Dubai, UAE.  4School of Architecture, Engineering, Land and Environmental Sciences, Neapolis University Pafos, Paphos, Cyprus

Corresponding author: Maria Papadaki (maria.papadaki@buid.ac.ae)

 


 

Abstract

The literature review highlights that previous studies have been identifying risk management as an essential tool for project management and could increase the chance of successfully meeting project objectives. In addition, as found from the reviewed literature, risk management has been seen as a tool of allowing the project team to communicate risk information, so as to enhance the decision-making process towards balancing threats and opportunities. Thus, this research aims to examine participants’ views on the alignment of risk management, project management and organizational project success. Machine learning algorithms are employed to explore collective data from posts on twitter in order to obtain valuable knowledge about discussions regarding risk management, and project management. Additionally, the corresponding scientific literature obtained from Scopus database was analyzed utilizing bibliometric tools, in order to investigate diverse perceptions in academia and industry. Findings of this study will have implications for practitioners’ perception of project risk management.

Keywords: Risk management, Project success, Decision making, Project management, Machine Learning, Big Data, Bibliometrics

 

  1. Introduction

In this work, we investigated significant concepts surrounding the project management (PM) and risk management (RM), the related concepts, as well as whether any relationship among them exist in academia or professional practice. Increasing the understanding of the relation between project management, risk management and people perception will lead us to gain knowledge about the use of the risk data regarding the decision making process.  This will contribute on building project risk aware culture.  Shi in [1] argues that proper implementation of project management, creates added value holistically to an organisation, both in strategic and operation level. In other words, effective risk management must be defined broadly in order to avoid strategic failures, that may lead operational ones. In addition, Drew et al [2] introduce five integrated elements that underpin a firm’s ability to manage risks, engage in effective corporate governance, and implement new regulatory changes: Culture, Leadership, Alignment, Systems, and Structure. Benjamin Franklin in 1748 when offering advice to a young tradesman; said “Remember that time is money”. The definition of this statement is very pragmatic; any delay to project execution by unexpected or unpredictable factors makes cost increase, thereby directly affecting one another.

Risk is a subjective concept, highly related to people’s perception, and many times extremely rare phenomenon occur, which cannot be quantified by statistics or forecasting methods [3].  This may be an outcome of tradition, attitude, and perception. People have a different behavior to the way that they perform risk management; some of them do it more than others or others do not do it at all, because is seen as unnecessary overhead [4]. Hence, human perception in the execution of the risk management process plays a vital role in the successful deployment of the process.

It is essential that decisions taken in a project take account of the level of risk in the project. Therefore, risk management plays a vital role throughout decision making process. Project managers and all the parties that are affected by risks have to be fully aware of the risk and their impacts on the project objectives.  A primary characteristic of a decision according to Charette [5] is that “a decision process must be visible, repeatable, and measurable”. In the decision process, project members have to make decisions with consideration of risk in a daily basis. Therefore, Risk management and more generally risks have to be a part of daily thinking and know-how. It is like a culture; project members have to be fully aware of risk and the consequences positive or negative and be able to manage or mitigate them in the most efficient way.

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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Papadaki, M., Bakas, N., Ochieng, E., Karamitsos, I., Kirkham, R. (2019). Big data from social media and scientific literature databases reveals relationships among risk management, project management and project success; presented at the 6th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Papadaki-et-al-big-data-reveals-relationships.pdf

 


 

About the Authors


Dr Maria Papadaki

United Kingdom

 

 

 

Dr Maria Papadaki obtained her first degree in Business Economics from Salford University. Part of her undergraduate study was carried out in IPAG University in Nice (France). Maria completed her MSc in Management of Projects from The University of Manchester (UoM) in 2005. As an internship, Maria undertook an economic study into the viability of establishing Formula 1 racing in Crete. In 2006, she joined the UoM PhD programme and also worked as a research associate and teaching assistant for the school of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering (MACE). In 2008, she conducted an internship with the Risk Function in Rolls-Royce plc.. In 2009 was appointed as an Enterprise Risk Management Professional at Rolls-Royce’s. In 2011 she joined Rolls-Royce plc. Supply Chain Function as a Risk Manager in order to work cross functionally and across all Rolls-Royce plc sectors (Civil, Defense, Energy, Nuclear and Marine) to design, develop and implement integrated and standardised tools and processes to enable the business to proactively identify, manage and mitigate delivery risks across the global supply chain. In 2013, she completed her doctoral studies in the field of risk from The University of Manchester.

In 2013, Dr Maria Papadaki was seconded as an Interim Head of Risk, leading the risk management for the UK Nuclear Restoration (UKNR), a joint venture between AMEC, Atkins and Rolls-Royce plc bidding for the largest nuclear decommissioning project in UK. In 2014, Maria initiated the idea and led the development of the first innovation Hub (H2B) in Crete, Greece on behalf of the Heraklion Chamber of Commerce. In 2015 Dr Papadaki joined the University of Manchester working as a Senior Relationship Manager for the British University in Dubai and the UK Alliance Universities and also acted as the Head of the Programme Management office and the DCRI (Dubai Centre for Risk and Innovation). She is now working as the Managing Director for the DCRI and an Assistant Professor for BUiD. Under this profile, she has been leading the development of digital certificates for BUiD’s graduates which made the university 1st in the Middle East and 3rd in the world implementing Blockchain technology in education. Her research and work are now focused on Innovation, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence, Enterprise Risk Management and Cyber Security. Finally, in 2018 she was appointed to the Board of Directors for the Institute of Risk Management (irm) in London. Under this profile she is leading the global education and training standards strategy for the institute (irm). Dr Maria Papadaki is a visiting lecturer in The University of Manchester and her research is now focused on innovation, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence, and Enterprise Risk Management. Maria Papadaki can be contacted at maria.papadaki@buid.ac.ae

 

 


Dr Nikolaos Bakas

Cyprus and Greece

 

 

 

Dr. Nikolaos Bakas is currently a Lecturer in Computational Mechanics at Neapolis University Pafos; External Collaborator of National Technical University of Athens, Director of NOESYS Consulting and External Associate at AXIA Chartered Surveyors. Dr. Bakas’ work concerns developing numerical methods and applying machine learning algorithms, in a variety of thematic areas in research and industry, for data analysis, predictive modeling, numerical optimization, quantitative insights, clustering and analysis of literature. In his recent monograph in Research, a Science Partner Journal, he provided a generic numerical solution for the hopelessly ill-conditioned mathematical problem of extrapolation, with prediction horizons 1000% higher than the existing methods in the scientific literature. He has been teaching for more than seven years in total, in the National Technical University of Athens, Engineering Intelligence and at Neapolis University Pafos, Cyprus, where he is currently appointed as a Lecturer. In the past, he has also founded and managed a lifelong training organization for engineers with more than 5000 trainees. Apart from his teaching and administrative activities, he is focused on research in applied mathematics, machine learning, data science, optimization, and relevant topics. He is also running NOESYS, for seminars, consulting and professional applications of machine learning algorithms.

Career Milestones include A recent monograph in Research, a Science Partner Journal for the numerical solution of the predictions problem of analytic functions; 40 Research works on numerical methods, optimization, data analysis, machine learning, statistics, and predictions; 10 years of professional and scientific programming (MIT’s Julia, Matlab, C++, etc.); 7 years of Teaching at Universities, Seminars, and Workshops; Foundation, growth, and management of Engineering Intelligence, an educational organization for engineering seminars with more than 5000, professional Engineers trainees. Continued as noesys.net; and Participation and management of impactful research projects with European funding (i.e. interview at Euronews). He can be contacted at n.bakas@nup.ac.cy, nibas@mail.ntua.gr

 


Prof Edward G. Ochieng

Dubai, UAE

 

 

 

Edward Ochieng, PhD, PGCertHELT, MSc, BSc (Hons), FHEA, AHEA is a Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Business and Law at The British University in Dubai (BUiD), United Arab Emirates. Dr Ochieng’s research is focused on major project management. He has extensive experience and knowledge relating to organisational challenges and solution development for managing large capital and heavy engineering projects. Edward has published 3 books, 28 book chapters and over 85-refereed papers in refereed journals and conferences. He has supervised 9 PhD students to successful completion and over 300 MSc/MBA industrial projects by research. Edward is currently supervising 4 PhD students. He has also acted as an internal and external examiner of more than 11 PhD students in different UK universities. Edward has secured an estimated £654,538.00 from a range of funders for several projects and consultancy in project management. Email: Edward.ochieng@buid.ac.ae

 

 


Ioannis Karamitsos

Dubai, UAE

 

 

 

Dr. Ioannis Karamitsos (B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D.) has vast industry and research experience over 25 years as an executive manager who worked within the private and public sectors and experienced within European, Middle East and Chinese companies. From 2010 to present, Ioannis is a Regional Director Technology Consultancy at Orange Business Services. Ioannis is member of DSOA-Dubai Innovation Advisory Board. In 2016, he had joined the Department of Electrical Engineering as an adjunct professor at Rochester Institute of Technology Dubai. In addition, Ioannis is academic coordinator for the Master of Data Analytics provided by RIT Dubai.

He is particularly interested in applying Blockchain, Cryptography, Machine learning, IIoT, and data mining techniques to emerging problems related to large-scale decentralized cyber-physical systems and critical infrastructures as well as energy, mining, health care and other domains of major economic and social impact. Ioannis received his PhD in Computer Science from University of Sunderland, UK, a Master Degree in Telematics Management from University of Danube Krems, Austria, and Bachelor Degree (Laurea) in Electronic Engineering from University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy. His have also executive certificates from MIT (Tackling the challenge of Big Data) and from Columbia Business School (Driving Strategic Impact Program).

 


Richard Kirkham

Manchester, UK

 

 

Richard Kirkham is currently co-lead of the Management of Projects Research Group in the School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester, with responsibility for research. Richard is an active researcher in the field of project studies; his research and teaching interests focus on risk management in the context of whole-life appraisal of buildings and civil infrastructure. Richard’s earlier research contributions in whole-life costing for infrastructure (incorporated into ISO15686-5) continue through government advisory, particularly in the context of major government projects  This was recognized in 2016 with the award of an ESRC staff secondment to the Cabinet Office where he worked in the Portfolio Insight Team (now the Analysis and Insight Unit) of the Infrastructure and Projects Authority.

Richard is also an active participant and co-investigator in the ESRC funded ‘Project X – Improving Project Delivery’ (Grant Ref: ES/S009841/1). This is a major investment that seeks to improve the evidence base surrounding major project and programme delivery in government by generate unique insights through world-leading ‘co-produced’ research. Richard is also an active researcher in the Thomas Ashton Institute for Risk and Regulatory Research, collaboration between The University of Manchester and the Health and Safety Executive.

Richard was PI for two Cabinet Office funded projects examining risk in the context of government transformation. Richard’s teaching at Manchester covers a broad spectrum of undergraduate and postgraduate work – including ‘Civil Engineering Practice’, ‘Construction Management Professional Practice’ and ‘Risk Management’. Richard has also delivered blended learning education through the MSc Project Management Professional Development Programme and the BP Executive Education programme that was led by Manchester Business School. Richard has also held a number of internal appointments including Faculty Employability Lead and Portfolio Director for the British University in Dubai (BUiD).

 

 

Six Fresh Eggs

A half dozen new ideas for managing projects in a rapidly changing VUCA world

 

SECOND EDITION

By David L. Pells

Addison, Texas, USA

 


 

ABSTRACT

Perhaps eggs are not the perfect metaphor for project management. But how many project managers or organizations have “laid an egg” by not working on the right project?  How many have ended up with “egg on their faces” by screwing up a project?  How many project managers have “killed the goose that laid the golden egg” by ignoring a critical stakeholder? With the rate of project failures remaining high, it seems that some fresh ideas are needed.

This paper identifies six new ideas (or fresh perspectives) for project management in a world characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), as follows: (1) Break large projects into smaller, more manageable projects, migrate to program management and focus on strategy, stakeholders and benefits; (2) Reverse Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) –  analyze the impact of changing conditions and environmental factors on your projects; (3) Stakeholder Intelligence – understand your stakeholders’ changing attitudes and issues over the course of a program or project, how VUCA affects project stakeholders; (4) Benefits Engineering – rather than value engineer scope to meet cost and schedule goals, adjust benefits to maximize value and customer satisfaction; (5) DARPA vs The Hunger Games – harness diversity, new knowledge and team-based innovation to create new solutions; and (6) Strategic Agility – when and how to adapt agility and agile project management.

Maybe some of these ideas will help project managers avoid constantly “walking on eggshells” or getting “goose eggs” from mid-project collisions.

Keywords:       project complexity, program management, reverse EIA, project innovation, agile, strategic agility, stakeholder intelligence, benefits engineering

INTRODUCTION

This paper is a summarized introduction to several topics, each of which deserves more attention and treatment than is possible in these few pages.  The topics and ideas are based on several things – the apparent continuing high rate of project failures; the topic of this conference, i.e. increasing pace of change in the world and the VUCA conditions faced by many projects; a growing body of knowledge associated with program(me) management, including standards and government guidelines in Australia, UK and USA; some brilliant recent papers published in the PM World Journal; and my recent experience working on a major U.S. government program.

BAD EGGS: FAILURE RATES REMAIN HIGH

A survey published in HBR found that the average IT project overran its budget by 27%. Moreover, at least one in six IT projects turns into a “black swan” with a cost overrun of 200% and a schedule overrun of 70%. In other words, while most IT projects will fall short of their budget targets, a few might overshoot the targets so much as to cause catastrophic organization-wide problems. [1] Annual surveys and studies, white papers and reports by various organizations worldwide seem to indicate that project success and failure rates continue at unsatisfactory levels.  This seems surprising based on the widespread knowledge and use of project management models, standards and tools.  With all the experience that now exists related to projects and PM, what’s going on?  Is it all due to the VUCA world?  What can we do to improve outcomes?  Below are some ideas.

IDEA 1: SOME EGGS ARE TOO BIG! – GO SMALL, MIGRATE TO PROGRAM MANAGEMENT

According to Mieritz, “A recent Gartner user survey shows that large IT projects are more likely to fail than small projects… Runaway budget costs are behind one-quarter of project failures for projects with budgets greater than $350,000.  Small is beautiful — or at least small projects are easier to manage and execute. The failure rate of large IT projects with budgets exceeding $1 million was found to be almost 50% higher than for projects with budgets below $350,000. To optimize success, look for ways to limit the size, complexity and duration of individual projects, and ensure funding has been committed…” [2]

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2019.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Pells, D.L. (2019). Six Fresh Eggs: A half dozen new ideas for managing projects in a rapidly changing VUCA world; presented at the 13th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2019; PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September. Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Pells-six-fresh-eggs.pdf

 


 

About the Author


David L. Pells

Managing Editor, PMWJ
Managing Director, PMWL

 

 

 

David L. Pells is Managing Editor of the PM World Journal (www.pmworldjournal.com) and Managing Director of the PM World Library (www.pmworldlibrary.net). David is an internationally recognized leader in the field of professional project management with more than 40 years of experience on a variety of programs and projects, including engineering, construction, energy, defense, transit, technology and nuclear security, and project sizes ranging from thousands to billions of dollars. He occasionally acts as project management advisor for U.S. national laboratories and international programs, and currently serves as an independent advisor for a major U.S. national security program.

David Pells has been an active professional leader in the United States since the 1980s, serving on the board of directors of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) twice.  He was founder and chair of the Global Project Management Forum (1995-2000), an annual meeting of leaders of PM associations from around the world. David was awarded PMI’s Person of the Year award in 1998 and Fellow Award, PMI’s highest honor, in 1999. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM) in the UK; Project Management Associates (PMA – India); Istituto Italiano di Project management (ISIPM) in Italy; and the Russian Project Management Association.  In 2010 he was awarded an honorary membership by the Project Management Association of Nepal.

Former managing editor of PM World Today, he is the creator, editor and publisher of the PM World Journal (since 2012).  David has a BA in Business Administration from the University of Washington and an MBA from Idaho State University in the USA.  He has published widely and spoken at conferences and events worldwide.  David lives near Dallas, Texas and can be contacted at editor@pmworldjournal.com.

To see other works by David Pells, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/david-l-pells/

 

 

Alternative dispute resolution between actors and directors

or how to avoid the crisis

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Gabriel Héaulme

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 


 

Abstract

This paper aims at understanding the financial and time risks of a dispute on a film set and what are the best alternative resolution that could be implemented. Along this paper we will tried to analyse and compare the alternatives. We will first define how this theme is linked to project, practice and program portfolio, then we will try to understand all the issues linked to the movie production industry through the main causes of disputes thanks to a Root cause analysis. Then, we used specific tools such as a non-compensatory model, a multi-attribute decision-making grid, a matrix analysis and, an additive weighting technique model. We used them to assess each scoring attributes, each alternative, and finally the best alternative dispute resolution.

Finally, prevention seems to be the best alternative dispute resolution. We will make a Pareto analysis to highlight the impact of disputes with Prevention and without it.

Key words:      Conflict Resolution, Movies Failure, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediator, Contractual Disputes

Introduction

“A long dispute means that both parties are wrong.” – Anonymous. This quote may mean that while two or more people are arguing in a conflict, they are wasting time, money, and energy that could have been used for something more useful. And at the end, everyone is losing. Movies or stages actors can play a lot of roles and emotions, they can pretend to be edgy, but that does not prevent them to face real dispute. Indeed, in this area, actors and directors might face many tensions and sources of conflict, last august, for instance, the well-known director Danny Boyle quitted the new Bond film few weeks before starting filming due to a dispute with the main actor. How much, this kind of problem, could cost for the company? Concretely, dispute could be the causes of project failure in the movie world, it is a key point of concern in this industry where the rise in budgets has new records every year (+ 13.4% of budgets between 2015 and 2016 in France).[1]

As in the example given above, stakeholders in the film world may be under constant emotional pressure that can lead to arguments that will not find any compromise. That is why, these stakeholders should try to find more original ways to solve problems such as the Alternative Dispute Resolution. Any process of allowing conflicting parties to amicably seek and accept a solution to cease the conflict or any intervention by a third party that avoids the use of a procedure will be considered as alternative. “ADR is usually less formal, less expensive, and less time-consuming than a trial. ADR can also give people more opportunity to determine when and how their dispute will be resolved.”[2]

These alternative solutions could be arbitration, conciliation, mediation, negotiation, collaborative law, … We think this kind of tool could reduce the risks and costs of disputes between actors and directors. Disputes are a main issue in this sector, and even if they are finally solved, the legal procedure, in front of a court could cause a project failure, high costs, an increase in the delays and a bad image for the production team regarding the public who could be affected.

As we know a project is a temporary process, moreover, project management can be defined as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations for the project”[3]. The realization of a movie is a deliverable of a unique product in a temporary project defined by contract. The relationship and the tasks that need to be done appear in this contract. It is a response to a need and deployed in a specific context in this industry.

To better understand how this topic of movie production is related to the definitions of project, portfolio, program and assets, the table below will go into more detail on each of these points.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director paul.gardiner@skema.edu.

How to cite this paper: Héaulme, G. (2019). Alternative dispute resolution between actors and directors or how to avoid the crisis, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Heaulme-alternative-dispute-resolution-between-actors-and-directors.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Gabriel Héaulme

Lille, France

 

 

 

Gabriel Héaulme is a PGE Student at SKEMA Business School currently in Msc Project Management and Program Management and Business Development in Lille, France.

Passionate about cinema, he has had many professional experiences in this field, both in front of and behind the camera. Highly involved in acting, he is now an improvisation teacher in Lille and leads a group of 14 people. At the same time, he manages a group of young Scouts aged 14 to 17 years old where his project management skills are highly appreciated for a team that wants to go abroad in the summer of 2019. He also had the opportunity to manage an international solidarity project on August 2015 with the objective of building a classroom in a school near Dschang in Cameroon. He recently received the PRINCE2 and Agile certifications during his semester.

Gabriel Héaulme can be contacted at gabriel.heaulme@skema.edu Or gabrielheaulme@hotmail.fr

Also available via his LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/gabriel-héaulme-46a207130/

 

[1] Editor’s note: Number of movies approved by the CNC. https://www.afcinema.com/La-production-cinematographique-en-2016.html

[2] Quote from California Courts, © 2018 Judicial Council of California http://www.courts.ca.gov/3074.htm

[3]William R. Duncan (1996) – A guide to the project management body of knowledge http://www2.fiit.stuba.sk/~bielik/courses/msi-slov/reporty/pmbok.pdf

 

 

An Analysis of the Resolution of Disputes in E-contracts

using Multiple Analysis Methods

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Feiran Liu

SKEMA Business School

China and Lille, France

 


 

ABSTRACT

This article’s aim is to analyze the causes of disputes in E-contract and the alternative solutions to these disputes. There are three questions presented to promote the analysis which are how do buyers and sellers reach a consensus in a dispute? In the dispute, how to maintain the legal status of buyers and sellers equal? What is the most notable problem in dispute resolution? The analysis is carried out by the cause and effect diagram in root cause analysis, the Non-Dimensional Scaling Technique, a Non-Compensatory approach, the addictive weighting technique and the Pareto analysis. After analysis, six resolutions for resolving e-contract disputes have been proposed, and it is found that Buyer resolves independently is the best solution.

Keywords:      E-contract, causes of disputes, e-contract disputes, conflicts, alternative resolutions

INTRODUCTION

“Nowadays with China’s e-commerce develops rapidly, the numbers of e-contract disputes increase significantly”[1]. “Only in one province of China, Guangdong Province from 2011 to 2013, the average annual growth rate of e-contract disputes was 24%, and the average annual growth rate of new types of cases has reached 75%.”[2] The data showed that from May 2014 to April 2015, the E-commerce Trial Collegiate Panel in Guangdong “had accepted 19 e-contract dispute cases and concluded 14 cases;”[3]  And from May 2015 to April 2016, 266 cases of the same type were accepted and 192 cases were concluded; From May 2016 to April 2017, 107 cases of the same type were accepted and 148 cases were concluded [4]. Among these e-contract cases, the online shopping contract disputes accounted for more than 80%, and the remaining balances were other disputes such as intellectual property rights violations and privacy violations. In view of the large proportion of online shopping contract disputes, this report mainly emphasis on the analysis of the causes of online shopping contract disputes.

Generally speaking, the causes of e-contract disputes are numerous, however the dispute causes are mainly concentrated, and there are certain commonalities. Therefore, by the help of data in recent years, the causes of e-contract disputes are principally determined and classified into the following four categories according to their characters: seller related, buyer related, contract related, third party related. There are sub categories (11 in total) for each cause, which will be further studied according to the cause and effect diagram in root cause analysis (see figure 1).

Figure 1. Cause-and-Effect diagram[5]

E-commerce can facilitate people’s lives which is a manifestation of social development and progress. However, in the process of e-commerce transactions, conflicts are inevitable because of the different positions and opinions between the contract parties, and if conflicts are not resolved in time, it is easily to convert into disputes. Disputes of e-contract belongs to the scope of e-commerce projects, and their existence are a crucial obstacle to the completion of e-commerce projects to some extent. But according to Fenn et al. (1997) “conflict and dispute are two distinct notations. Conflict exists wherever there is incompatibility of interest. Conflict can be managed, possibly to the extent of preventing a dispute resulting from the conflict” [6]. Hence, analyzing the causes of disputes could promote the exploration of the underlying source of conflicts, which can help e-commerce managers to evade and manage, also helps to improve the e-commerce project contracts and regulations. Thus it will promote the completion of electronic projects and alleviate the current sudden increase in the number of electronic dispute cases in China to a certain extent.

This article aims to analyze the causes of conflicts in e-contracts and provide solutions. To achieve this goal, detailed analysis will be conducted in the following articles. At the end of the article, readers will have a clear and crystal understanding of the causes of disputes in e-contracts. And more importantly, this article will provide practical suggestions and solutions in order to obtain better solutions of the e-contract disputes in actual e-commerce projects.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director paul.gardiner@skema.edu.

How to cite this paper: Liu, F. (2019). An Analysis of the Resolution of Disputes in E-contracts using Multiple Analysis Methods, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue VIII, September.  Available online at https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/pmwj85-Sep2019-Liu-resolutions-of-disputes-in-econtracts.pdf

 


 

About the Author


Feiran LIU

Zibo, China

 

 

 

Feiran LIU is a student of MSc Project and Programme Management & Business Development at SKEMA Business School in Lille Campus. Born in Zibo, China, she has obtained a bachelor’s degree in Water Supply and Drainage Science and Engineering from Qingdao Technological University. During her bachelor’s degree, she had a short internship at Shandong Tianwei Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. and Licunhe Wastewater Treatment Plant. She has a certain knowledge reserve for engineering design and sewage treatment, and now she is studying for project management in SKEMA Business School in France.

Feiran lives in Zibo, China, and can be contacted at feiranatasha@hotmail.com.

To view more information about Feiran, check out her LinkedIn page at: https://www.linkedin.com/in/%E6%96%90%E7%84%B6-%E5%88%98-78a238173/

 

[1] Nanfang Daily. 10 e-commerce disputes involving 7 online shopping. Retrieved from http://tech.sina.com.cn/roll/2017-06-19/doc-ifyhfpat5274601.shtml

[2] Nanfang Daily. 10 e-commerce disputes involving 7 online shopping. Retrieved from http://tech.sina.com.cn/roll/2017-06-19/doc-ifyhfpat5274601.shtml

[3] Nanfang Daily. 10 e-commerce disputes involving 7 online shopping. Retrieved from http://tech.sina.com.cn/roll/2017-06-19/doc-ifyhfpat5274601.shtml

[4] Nanfang Daily. 10 e-commerce disputes involving 7 online shopping. Retrieved from http://tech.sina.com.cn/roll/2017-06-19/doc-ifyhfpat5274601.shtml

[5] By Author.

[6] Emre Cakmak and Pinar Irlayici Cakmak. An analysis of causes of disputes in the construction industry using analytical network process. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813050738