The revolution of a domain

Disputes in the travel industry



By Zine El-Abidine El-Mortadha Marfouq

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France and Morocco




This study investigated the different dispute resolution which is a big issue in the travel sector. After a concise portrayal of each alternative to dispute resolution those alternatives dispute resolutions (ADR) can be used to resolve a dispute between two parties. These six alternatives are compared to each other regarding chosen criteria. Those fourteen criteria are weighted according to their level of importance for dispute resolution. The goal of this paper is to discover which type of alternative is the preferred one when managing a dispute.

The paper is based on a Multi-attribute decision analysis, an additive weighting calculation, a fishbone diagram and articles. These analyses show that Franchising is the preferred solution for seed saving, cost saving, and so on.

Regardless of whether Franchising has disadvantages, it is the favored arrangement. To be sure, you can’t generally make certain that one alternative will be a success. In any case, Franchising is the one that will more meet every one of the objectives expecting by both gatherings in Travel.

Keywords:     Contract, Signature, Countries, Laws, Project Management, Litigation


“Do you know that some countries are mostly dependent on the travel industry? Paris, New York, Dubai…”[1]  These destinations of dreams which amaze the travelers. In fact, some countries have their GDP increasing due to tourism spending. Tourism is one of the important industries in the world because it contributes to the national income. “During the last 15 years, between 1995 and 2010 international tourist arrivals had increased from 540.6 to 935 million, and the total tourism receipts had increased from USD 410.7 billion to USD 919 billion representing an annual average growth of 5.52%.”[2]

Concerning the project which is defined as an investment which requires a set of logically linked and coordinated activities performed over a finite period in order to accomplish a unique result in support of a desired outcome[3]. For the domain of travel, an example of a project can be a hotel, the investment requires a big commitment of financial resources, usually it’s the chain of big hotels around the world who invest in. The constraint of the hotel project is the time; a hotel take minimum 2-3 years[4] depending on the country and the contract of permit construction who can affect the duration of a building. The desired outcome is expected to benefit the entity or entities who have invested in the project, generally investors expect their return on investment the soon as possible to get a benefit and reinvest them.

What is a program? 4 different definitions regroup the program:[5]

  • A strategic program which deliver assets and benefits that are directly linked to attaining the sponsoring organization’s future state, for example the developing of many agencies around the world in order to raise the clients, the reputation of the company and make more profits.
  • An operational program which deliver assets and benefits that are critical to the sponsoring organization’s day to day operations, for example the backing up the computers each day, verify the servers if they are not full, the reserve of stock of Passports, making sure that the software is updated.
  • Multi-Project Program that achieves synergies from projects with common traits such as shared resources, similar clients or product technology, for example a travel agency who works with a tour operator in a country can propose different travel packages for groups, in France 3 groups located in Paris, Marseille, and Lyon want the same trip in the same country, the travel agency will sell wholesale, and create different departures according to each aeroport.
  • Mega-Project that deliver a specific asset to the sponsoring organization, for example a travel agency who have the possibility to obtain many visa hajj who is regulated by the Saudi government, and creating 5000 travel product that allows clients going doing their Haj.

A travel program always represents a long-term vision, for example: When a travel agency organizes for the only goal to sell grouped trip to make a benefit, considering elements assets like airlines tickets, room chambers, visa fees, guides…

About the asset which can be “a tangible or intangible resource with economic value that an individual, corporation or country owns or controls with the expectation that it will provide future benefit.[6]

We can notice there are 5 assets classes:


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director

How to cite this paper: Author last name, first initial (2019). The revolution of a domain: Disputes in the travel industry, PM World Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue IV (May).  Available online at



About the Author


Zine El-Abidine Marfouq

Paris, France



Zine El-Abidine El-Mortadha MARFOUQ is a French student at SKEMA Business School (Paris), specialized in Project and Program Management and Business Development. He was graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree from ESG Business school and obtained a double diploma International Business Administration in Manhattan Institute of Management in New York. He joined SKEMA in 2017 and improved his knowledge in Finance and Management during classes and internships. This student paper has produced with the reason of getting it published with the PM World Journal, and this paper is based on researches, interviews, and personal feedbacks. His last internship in Finance and business development in Bo Concept (New York) showed an ambiguous desire to learn the project management. He also works alternately in a travel agency in the administrative and financial direction. His experience in tourism involved him in big projects managements like organizing grouped trips, developing marketing campaigns for different travel agencies. He speaks fluent French, English, moderate Arabic.

He lives in Paris, France and can be contacted at


[1] Countries which are most dependent on the travel industry. (2017, April 26). Retrieved from

[2] Analysis of causal relationship between tourism development, economic growth and foreign direct investment. (2012). Retrieved from

[3] Harris, P., Kriel, J., LeServe, M., Riaz, Y., Giammalvo, D. P. D., Illingworth, S., … Weaver, P. (n.d.). 01.1.2. In Guild of project controls compendium and reference (car). Retrieved from

[4]  How long does it take to build a hotel, like Marriot? (2017, October 31). Retrieved from

[5] Harris, P., Kriel, J., LeServe, M., Riaz, Y., Giammalvo, D. P. D., Illingworth, S., … Weaver, P. (n.d.). In Guild of project controls compendium and reference (car). Retrieved from

[6] Harris, P., Kriel, J., LeServe, M., Riaz, Y., Giammalvo, D. P. D., Illingworth, S., … Weaver, P. (n.d.). In Guild of project controls compendium and reference (car). Retrieved from